Here is a review of Educational Games and learning outcomes created by Lucy Shores:

Educational Psychology Tutoring Programs


Information Processing TheoryBeliefs and Cognition

Beliefs about Intelligence and Knowledge

Fostering Cognitive GrowthCognition in the Classroom

Information Processing Theory
This site is part of a larger investigation of human behavior including a cognitive processes section. Included in that section is a portion on memory that gives a useful and easy to follow definition for the different levels of memory, and it also includes a few additional links. (In addition to memory section, cognitive processes also include mental representations, language, intelligence, and learning portions.
This site is part of a much larger set of webpages centered on Performance, Learning, Leadership, and Knowledge. Although fairly simple, it provides a cute visual of the information processing model as will as brief descriptions of its parts.
From the Educational Psychology Interactive resource, this page provides another introduction to the information processing model. It includes a visual of the system as well as a table relating principles of the model to classroom practice.

Beliefs and Cognition

Beliefs About Self

• Albert Bandura:; excellent information about Bandura and his research, post past and current – many links

• Albert Bandura:; biography of Bandura and overview of theory

• Social Cognitive Theory:; Perdue Univ. website describing the assumptions underlying social cognitive theory


• Information on Self-Efficacy:; excellent site containing many links to information about self-efficacy as well as links to Bandura’s publications and theory information

• Overview of Social Cognitive Theory and of Self-Efficacy:; good reference site

• Self-Efficacy:; good overview site with many links

• Self-Efficacy:; self-efficacy defined by Bandura; included links


• Explicit Teacher Modeling:; breaks down the elements of the strategy and shows how to implement it in the classroom

• Intel: Learn about Teacher Modeling:; provides examples of modeling including a script of a think aloud

• Modeling as Classroom Support for Literacy Learning:; short description, talk-alouds and think-alouds

Self-Regulated Learning Theory

• The Role of Self-Regulated Learning in Contextual Teaching: Principles and Practices for Teacher Preparation, by Scott G. Paris and Peter Winograd:; Commissioned Paper for the U.S. Department of Education Project Preparing Teachers to Use Contextual Teaching and Learning Strategies To Improve Student Success In and Beyond School. Dr. Kenneth R. Howey, Project Director.

• Self-Regulated Learning, Social Cognitive Theory, and Agency:; Educational Psychologist article: the conception and theory of agency as self-regulation that is contained within Bandura's social cognitive theory is examined and elaborated in the context of the relevant philosophical history of ideas and through consideration of recent work in theoretical developmental psychology. Implications for self-regulated learning in classrooms are considered.

• Self-Regulation:; interesting University of Connecticut site on self-regulation in the classroom that includes a video and many links; good overview of self-regulated learning for teaching

Attribution Theory

• Attribution Theory Overview:; University of South Florida site

• Attribution Theory and Motivation:; good information with a short quiz at the end, plus lots of links

• Motivation Jeopardy:; PowerPoint Jeopardy game with motivation/attribution as the category topics

• Motivation: General Theories and Classroom Practices:; bibliographies, websites, citations and abstract

Beliefs about Intelligence and Knowledge

Beliefs about Intelligence

• History of Intelligence Theory Interactive Map: : click on a researcher and discover his/her role in history of intelligence research

• Intelligence: Knowns and Unknowns: APA Task Force Report:; good overview of intelligence theories

• Dr. Jekyll Meets Mr. Hyde:? Two Faces of Research on Intelligence and Cognition, by Robert Sternberg

Beliefs about Knowledge

• What is Reflective Judgment and Why is it Important?:; Kitchener and King describe the stages of epistemological growth that takes place in students between adolescence and adulthood and the corresponding abilities to reason through complex problems with a high degree of uncertainty; includes summary of stages and links to articles

• Reflective Judgment:; This website provides a detailed description of King and Kitchener's (1994) Reflective Judgment Model and the two most commonly used instruments for the assessment of reflective judgment development, the Reflective Judgment Interview (RJI) and the Reasoning about Current Issues (RCI) Test. The website provides information for graduate students, educators, and educational researchers about the Reflective Judgment Model and general assessment instruments.

Fostering Cognitive Growth

• Critical Thinking and Problem Solving Skills:; This page has general information, lesson plans and bibliographies to help educators interested in higher order thinking skills.

Historical Perspectives


• Edward Thorndike biography:; influences, education, career, major contributions and publications

• The Psi Café:; Thorndike biography site with links to career contributions, research, theories and publications

• Classics in the History of Psychology; article first published in The Journal of Educational Psychology, 1, 5-12.


• John Dewey:; biography with multiple links

• Center for Dewey Studies:; video and audio of John Dewey, information on his life, work and publications

• John Dewey:; biography with links to his publications and other internet sources

Gestalt Psychologists

• Gestalt Psychology:; history of Gestalt Psychology and the psychologists associated with its history

• Gestalt Psychology:; links to the laws of proximity, similarity, good continuation, closure, good form and figure ground

• Classics in the History of Psychology: Gestalt Psychology Today:; overview of Gestalt Psychology, past to present
Classroom Contexts for Cognitive Growth


• Constructivist Learning Theory:; general overview of constructivism vs. behaviorism

• “Constructivism”:; includes an overview of constructivist learning theory and a brief summary of constructivist learning principles, along with some corresponding recommendations for educational practice and links to relevant resources

• A Journey into Constructivism:; includes an introduction to constructivism, its background and insight into the different faces of constructivism

• Constructivism Mind Map:; graphic representation of constructivist learning

Vygotsky: Dialectical Constructivism

• Vygotsky Resource Page:; this page has biographical information sites, theory sites, and information for teachers sites.

• Lev Vygotsky Archive:; an archive of all the writings of Vygotsky

Social Cognition: Social Factors in Knowledge Construction

• Socio-Cultural Resource Page:; many links to theorists and articles

• Social Cognition:; definition of social cognition and related theories, includes reference list

• Social Learning Theory WebQuest: reviews general principles of social learning theories and its educational implications

• Vygotsky and Social Cognition:; overview of social cognition and application to curriculum, instruction, assessment and organizational theory, also many related links

Rogoff’s Apprenticeship in Thinking Model

• Cognitive Apprenticeship:; description of this teaching model, plus design and development tips; site also give access to a PowerPoint presentation describing this model

• 21st Century Learning Initiative:; overview of this model and a framework for designing an instructional program based on the model

• Learning Strategies: Cognitive Apprenticeship Model:; includes an overview and an interactive prototype

• Examples of Modeling: Cognitive Modeling Scenario:; includes strategies and a cognitive modeling scenario using an art history class

Schon’s Reflective Practitioner Model

• Donald Schon: Learning, Reflecting and Change: interesting bio and overview of Schon’s work.

• The Reflective Practitioner Model:; this site provides case studies of this model at different schools

• Beyond Knowledge and Competence: Towards a Framework of Professional Education:; this article discusses the importance of reflection in a post-industrial, information-based society

Technological Contexts for Cognitive Growth
This links to the current home of the gStudy (the Learning Kit Project), which is an ongoing project. The study is working to develop digital technologies to enhance learning.

Cognitive Load Theory and Multimedia Design

• Cognitive Load Theory and Instructional Design:; interesting paper on instructional (especially multimedia design) with very cool examples – fun to read

• Research on Cognitive Load Theory and Its Design Implications for e-learning:; brief description of assumptions regarding memory systems and learning processes, different types of cognitive load (intrinsic, extraneous, and germane), and design implications

• Applying Cognitive Load Theory to the Design of Web-based Instruction:; the principles of cognitive load theory were applied to the design an instructional web site and the designers discovered that cognitive load theory provides a sound baseline for the design of effective web-based instruction

• Cognitive Load Theory and Instructional Design: Recent Developments:; pdf of an Educational Psychologist paper about recent developments in the field

Four Component Instructional Design Model

• The Four-Component Instructional Design Model: Multimedia Principles in Design for Cognitive Learning:; research implications and limitations of the framework are presented in this paper.

• Instructional Development Timeline:; from 1832 into the 2000s, broken down into behavioral, information processing, and constructivist

• Annotated Bibliography on Instructional Design:; includes books articles and websites

• ADAPTIT: Advanced Design Approach for Personalized Training:; example of application of 4C-ID

Social Cognitive Theory and Classroom Communities

• Becoming a "Communal Architect" in the Online Classroom - Integrating Cognitive and Affective Learning for Maximum Effect in Web-Based Learning:; the authors discuss several online and offline community-building strategies that may be used to foster a positive social dynamic in online courses

• Computer Supported Collaborative Learning:; history of and relation to other learning theories, many links

Cognition in the Classroom
This link leads to a paper describing the cognitive approach to instruction and its general applications in the classroom. It is a helpful introduction for individuals concerned with all the subject areas because it lays out many important principles of effective teaching.

Reading and Writing
Although this website is produced in a less scholarly format than some of the other sites, it is informative about the reading process and the process of learning to read.
From the Southwest Educational Development Laboratory, this is an extremely helpful website for information about cognitive foundations fro reading. It is based on the “A” framework graphic of building blocks of learning to read and reading to learn. By clicking on each of the components, you can get more information about that component as well as assessment techniques, instructional techniques, and additional resources.
This is a link to the Center for the Study of Reading website, which talks about the research that they are currently conducting. Much of this work involves the incorporation of elements from educational psychology
For those who want a little something to read about learning to read and write, this is the resource for you. The link leads to a page that allows you to download sections of or the entire paper about learning to read and write. Although somewhat lengthy, this resource produced by the Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory could be very useful.
This link provides a visual of the diagram for the cognitive processes involved in writing. Although it only provides a short written description, the diagram could be a helpful resource.
This link leads to a more detailed written description of the components included in the previous diagram of the cognitive processes involved with writing.

Math and Science
This link provides a short description of the importance of a cognitive approach to science instruction, and it includes a visual of the components that should be included in effective science curricula.
Here is a product of the US Department of Education describing what mathematics instruction should look like. Many of the points included incorporate ideas from the cognitive approach to teaching mathematics. Although written more as lofty goals rather than straight practical suggestions, this could be a useful resource for developing a vision for math instruction.

    Again, from the US Department of Education, here is the science counterpart piece to the mathematics instruction description. It also incorporate many points from the cognitive approach to teaching science and presents them in more a visionary format than step by step practical suggestion, but it can serve as a useful resource.       


Educational Psychology Web Resources