Opportunities in Wet-End Chemistry
About Us

Background information
NCSU Dept. Wood & Paper The Buckman Program in Papermaking Wet-End Chemistry at North Carolina State University emphasizes research, as well as education at the undergraduate, graduate, and distance-Masters degree levels. See ABSTRACTS of our publications. See our "Distance-Ed" COURSES.
Curriculum vitae Curriculum vitae of the sitemaster, Martin A. Hubbe
How to contact us Click at left for lists that include the phone numbers and E-Mail that you may need to contact different people in the Department of Wood and Paper Science at NCSU.

Photo from a Feb., 2005 meeting of our "fiber interactions science and technology" discussion group. From left: Yun Wang, Sa Yong Lee, Martin Hubbe, Junlong Song, Xingwu Wang, Orlando Rojas, Changwoo Jeong, and Dimitris Argyropoulos

The Buckman Wet-End Chemistry Program at NC State NCSU, Wood & Paper Sci.

NC State's Buckman Program for education and research in paper machine wet-end chemsitry was established through a generous Buckman Foundation grant from Bob Buckman and his wife Joyce Mollerup. Bob is CEO of Buckman Laboratories, a leading supplier of chemicals for the papermaking process.

As noted by Bob Buckman, it is no longer sufficient just to develop modifed products and processes by gradual evolution. Rather, the future demands that we manage knowledge, and that we digest and communicate that knowledge so that it can be put to use. The goal is to substitute knowledge in the place of cost.

Nowehere is the need for technological innovation more critical than in papermaking wet-end chemistry. Fiber furnish and process water quality are changing. Factors prompting these changes include recycling and reductions in fresh water use. New instrumentation and chemical additives are becoming available. As though that were not enough, competition requires us to produce ever more uniform products, using an increasing level of automation.

Realizing the importance of wet-end chemistry to the future of our industry, the Buckman Foundation gave $1 million dollars to endow a new program in Wet-End Chemistry education and research here at NC State. The generous gift has enabled the Wood and Paper Science department to offer the new program that you see described in this website.

Project initiatives of the Buckman Wet-End Chemistry Program are listed elsewhere on this website. After you have read through information about our departmental initiatives (see below), you are invited to click on the following links:

1. Graduate Research, including an award from AF&PA's Agenda 2020 and the Department of Energy

2. Courses related to wet-end chemistry (in addition to departmental initiatives listed below)

CLICK HERE if your want to view the contents of a flier that describes more about the Buckman program and how we may be able to meet some of your needs in wet-end chemical education or research.

New Lab Facilities, opened January 2001; To see more pictures, click here.

Chemtrac & Mutek SC
Streaming current devices to evaluate colloidal charge of process water
SKS Charge Analazer 2
Micro-electrophoresis equipment for determination of zeta potential
Holyoke, Mass brew
"Paper City," Holyoke, MA

As of January 2001 the wet-end chemistry program has a newly rennovated lab space, Biltmore Hall 3107! Come and visit us when you get a chance. Here are some of the devices that we have set up in our new lab:

Department of Wood and Paper Science

Robertson wing
View of Biltmore Hall's Robertson wing
Biltmore Hall 2221
Main classroom (Biltmore 2221) for pulp and paper science courses
Physical test lab
Physical testing lab for paper properties at 50% relative humidity

You are encouraged to visit our DEPARTMENTAL WEBSITE

There you will find information about the following subjects: Students, Personnel, Facilities, Research, Technical Services, Continuing Education, and Wood Products Extension

Some specific items that you may want to visit on our departmental site are as follows:

ON-LINE COURSES available only through the departmental website provide an introduction to BLEACHING, and factors that to into the COST OF PULP. Additional web-based and CD-based courses are under development to provide introductions in the areas of pulping, recycling, tissue manufacture, and wet-end chemistry.

SHORT COURSES are listed on the departmental site.

The PULP AND PAPER FOUNDATION does a wonderful job in helping to attract qualified undergraduate students. Approximately 100 grants are currently in effect. These grants support the tuition and subsistence needs of people on whom the future of the paper industry will depend. The university is extremely grateful for our many friends in industry who have made the commitment to support our program in this way.

Graduate Program

North Carolina State is a leading centers of undergraduate and graduate research. Our enrollment numbers are approximately as follows:

Undergraduates: 180
M.S. Canditates: 15
Ph.D. Candidates: 10

Between 1988 and 1998 we granted 37 M.S. degrees and 21 Ph.D. degrees.

Curriculum Vitae:

Curiculum vitae

MARTIN A. HUBBE, Ph.D. (prounouced "hew' bee")

Hubbe photo Associate Professor
Buckman Distinguished Scientist
Department of Wood and Paper Science
North Carolina State University
Box 8005
Raleigh, NC 27695-8005
Voice: (919) 513-3022
Department: (919) 515-2888
FAX: (919) 515-6302
E-Mail: hubbe@ncsu.edu

EMPLOYMENT RECORD

Aug. 1998 to present: North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC

Director of Buckman Wet-End Chemistry Research Program. Teaching focus: Papermaking wet-end chemistry. Research focus: Colloidal chemistry of wood-based materials and related applications; strategies to achieve high operating efficiency and uniform product quality despite changes in the quality of the furnish or process water; usage of cellulosic materials to absorb various toxic mateirals from aqueous streams. Project initiatives: flocculation and drainage dynamics; improving the reliability of on-line charge measurements; management of fines.

Chair of TAPPI short course, "Introduction to Wet-End Chemistry."

Teaching activities include innovations in distance education, on-line quizzing, short courses, regular on-campus semester courses, and a course website for the graduate level course in wet-end chemistry. The courses include a graduate-level course WPS527 "Wet-End & Colloidal Chemistry." WPS 527 is one of the core courses in the department's distance education program, aimed especially at college graduates who's current work involves some aspect of paper technology. In Fall 2001 we launched WPS322, a wet-chemistry course for on-campus Juniors. A textbook is in preparation for use by students of WPS322. In Fall 2004 a new course "Chemical Principles for the Papermaking Process Engineer" (WPS595M) was made available for distance education students. WPS 516 "Forest Products Colloids & Surfaces", developed and taught in collaboration with Dr. Orlando Rojas, considers challenging questions related to recent publications.

1986-1998: International Paper, Corporate Research Center, Tuxedo, NY

Principal Scientist, Paper Science group. Initiated projects in paper machine chemistry optimization, wet-end control, alkaline conversion, and proprietary product development. Served as corporate consultant to production and product development groups, with focus on strategies to achieve superior fines retention, drainage, and product characteristics. Initiated and conducted commercial scale trials, including trials at linerboard mills in Oregon and Louisiana. Assisted with one of the first major conversions from acidic to alkaline conditions. Initiated program of instruction, prepared text, and presented the company's main course in paper machine wet-end chemistry. Other focus areas included color matching between paper mills, colloidal chemistry, and optimization of fillers.

1983-1986: American Cyanamid Co., Stamford, CT (now Cytec Industries)

Formulated and tested proprietary sizing agents and other additives for alkaline papermaking. Worked with state-of-art surface chemistry laboratory, including Langmuir film balance. Developed experimental methods involving paper handsheets, infrared spectra, liquid-solid contact angles, size tests, and drainage/retention testing.

1979 summer: Finnish Pulp & Paper Res. Inst., Helsinki

Evaluated dispersant systems for coating formulations. Developed new, more accurate procedures to determine adsorption isotherms of phosphates onto talc and clay. Presented final report.

1978 summer: Consolidated Paper Co., Wisconsin Rapids, WI

Developed tests for aluminum content and colloidal charge of white water. Analyzed wet-end chemistry and charge balance in three paper mills. Tested the effects of various additives on retention of fillers and on zeta potentials. Presented final report on titration procedure and results.

1976 summer: S. D. Warren Research, Westbrook, ME

Formulated light-sensitive coatings for lithographic plates. Searched the patent literature. Assisted with chemical synthesis of light-sensitive materials. Operated small printing press.

1975,'73,'72 summers: Great Northern Nekoosa, Millinocket, ME

Pulp and paper mill labor pool; Worked all low-seniority jobs in mill, including wood yard, debarking plant, grinding mill, sulfite pulp mill, paper machines, coaters, finishing department, recovery plant, and mill offices.

1974 summer: Great Northern Nekoosa, Millinocket, ME

Studied causes and solutions of Fourdrinier wire corrosion. Developed corrosion test procedures. Tested corrosion of bronze Fourdrinier forming fabrics by hydrosulfite bleach and its decomposition products. Tested effects of storage conditions on bleach stability.

EDUCATION

1980-1983: Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY
Ph.D. in Chemistry, G.P.A. 3.81 of a possible 4.00.
Research area: Effects of wet-end chemicals, filler particle size, and shear forces on retention of fine particles

1977-1979: Institute of Paper Chemistry, Appleton, WI
M.S. in Chemistry, G.P.A. 2.60 of a possible 3.00
Thesis area: Retention of fine particles during paper manufacture

1976-1977: Thomas J. Watson Foundation, fellowship year abroad
Project area: Corrosivity of paper machine white water vs. total fresh water use and wet-end chemistry. Study conducted in 30 Finnish, German, and Swedish paper mills

1972-1976: Colby College, Waterville, ME
G.P.A. 3.26 of a possible 4.00
Major in Chemistry; honors graduate

PUBLICATIONS

Please note that ABSTRACTS are available on a separate page. Also, you can click on title links below to go directly to the corresponding abstract of the listed article. In addition, many of these articles can be downloaded as PDF files from NC State University's repository.

Salas, C., Rojas, O. J., Lucia, L. A., Hubbe, M. A., and Genzer, J. (2012). “Adsorption of glycinin and beta-conglycinin on silica and cellulose: Surface interactions as a function of denaturation, pH, and electrolytes,” Biomacromolecules 13(2), 387-396.

Hubbe, M. A., Beck, K. R., O'Neal, W. G., and Sharma, Y. C. (2012). "Cellulosic substrates for removal of pollutants from aqueous systems: A review. 2. Dyes," BioResources 7(2), 2592-2687.

Hamzeh, Y., Najafi, S. M. H., Hubbe, M. A., Salehi, K., and Firouzabadi, M. R. D. (2012). “Recycling potential of unbleached and bleached chemical pulps from juvenile and mature wood of Populus deltoides,” Holzforschung 66, 155-161.

Spence, K. L., Venditti, R. A., Rojas, O. J., Pawlak, J. J., and Hubbe, M. A. (2011). “Water vapor barrier properties of coated and filled microfibrillated cellulose composite films,” BioResources 6(4), 4370-4388.

Hubbe, M. A., Wu, N., Rojas, O. J., and Park, S. (2011). “Permeation of a cationic polyelectrolyte into mesoporous silica. Part 3. Using adsorption isotherms to elucidate streaming potential results,” Colloids Surf. A 381(1-3), 1-6.

Silva, D. J., Rojas, O. J., Hubbe, M. A., and Park, S. W. (2011). “Enzymatic treatment as a pre-step to remove cellulose films from sensors,” Macromol. Symp. 299/300, 107-112.

Hubbe, M. A., Hasan, S. H., and Ducoste, J. J. (2011). "Cellulosic substrates for removal of pollutants from aqueous systems: A review. 1. Metals," BioRes. 6(2), 2161-2287.

Hubbe, M. A. (2010). “Using cellulosic materials to remove heavy metals from water,” Research Progress in Paper Industry and Biorefinery (4th ISETPP), S. China Univ. Technol., Nov. 8-10, 1078-1082.

Hubbe, M. A., Nazhad, M., and Sánchez, C. (2010). "Composting as a way to convert cellulosic biomass and organic waste into high-value soil amendments: A review," BioRes. 5(4), 2808-2854.

Baty, J. W., Maitland, C. L., Minter, W., Hubbe, M. A., and Jordan-Mowery, S. K. (2010). "Deacidification for the conservation and preservation of paper-based works: A review," BioRes. 5(3), 1955-2023.

Hubbe, M. A., Wu, N., Rojas, O. J., and Park, S. (2010). “Permeation of a cationic polyelectrolyte into mesoporous silica. Part 2. Effects of time and pore size on streaming potential,” Colloids and Surfaces A 364(1-3), 7-15.

Kim, G.-Y., and Hubbe, M. A. (2010). “Engineering of a wet-end additives program relative to process parameters and to the physical and optical properties of filled paper,” Indus. Eng. Chem. Res. 49(12), 5644-5653.

Hubbe, M. A. (2010). “Factors to consider for enhancing and extending the recyclability of paper,”O Papel 71(4), 40-60.

Wu, N., Hubbe, M. A., Rojas, O. J., and Park, S. (2010). “Permeation of a cationic polyelectrolyte into mesoporous silica. Part 1. Factors affecting changes in streaming potential,” Colloids and Surfaces A 364(1-3), 1-6.

Hubbe, M. A. (2010). Ten Year Forecasts of Disruptive Technologies in
Paper and Board to 2020, Pira International.

Song, J., Yamaguchi, T., Silva, D. J., Hubbe, M. A., and Rojas, O. J. (2010). “Effect of charge asymmetry on adsorption and phase separation of polyampholytes on silica and cellulose surfaces,” J. Phys. Chem. B 114(2), 719-727.

Chen, H., Park, A., Heitmann, J. A., and Hubbe, M. A. (2009). "Importance of cellulosic fines relative to the dewatering rates of fiber suspensions," Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 48(20), 9106-9112.

Silva, D. J., Rojas, O. J., Hubbe, M. A., Park, S. W., Yamaguchi, T., and Song, J. (2009). “Polyampholytes: Their use in papermaking and their solution and adsorption behaviors,” O Papel 70(9), 40-50.

Silva, D. J., Rojas, O. J., Park, S. W., and Hubbe, M. A. (2009). “Evaluation of adsorbed polyampholyte layers by using quartz crystal microbalance,” 10th Intl. Symp. Process Systems Engineering – PSE2009, de Brito Alves, R. M., do Nascimento, C. A. O, and Chalbaud Biscaia, E. C., Jr., (eds.).

Hubbe, M. A., Nanko, H., and McNeal, M. R. (2009). “Retention aid polymer interactions with cellulosic surfaces and suspensions: A Review,” BioRes. 4(2), 850-906.

Hubbe, M. A., and King, K. (2009). Cost-Saving Strategies in Papermaking Chemistry, TAPPI Press, Atlanta, 237 pp.

Lee, S. Y., and Hubbe, M. A. (2009). “Morphologies of synthetic mineral microparticles for papermaking as a function of synthetic conditions,” Colloids Surf. A 339(1-3), 118-125.

Hubbe, M. A., Chen, H., and Heitmann, J. A. (2009). "Permeability reduction phenomena in packed beds, fiber mats, and wet webs of paper exposed to flow of liquids and suspensions: A review," BioRes. 4(1), 405-451.

Lee, S. Y., and Hubbe, M. A. (2008). “Application of synthetic mineral microparticles with various metal species,” J. Korea TAPPI 40(5), 1-10.

Hubbe, M. A., and Rojas, O. J. (2008). “Colloidal stability and aggregation of lignocellulosic materials in aqueous suspension: A review,” BioResources 3(4), 1419-1491.

Hubbe, M. A. (2008). “Accurate charge-related measurements of samples from the wet end: Testing at low electrical conductivity,” Paper Technol. 49(6), 21-26.

Lee, S. Y., and Hubbe, M. A. (2008). “Polyelectrolyte titrations of synthetic mineral microparticle suspensions to evaluate charge characteristics,” Colloids and Surfaces A, in print.

Hubbe, M. A., Heitmann, J. A., and Cole, C. A. (2008).  “Water release from fractionated stock suspensions.  2.  Effects of consistency, flocculants, shear, and order of mixing,” TAPPI J. 7(8), 14-19.

Cole, C. A., Hubbe, M. A., and Heitmann, J. A. (2008). “Water release from fractionated stock suspensions.  1.  Effects of the amounts and types of fiber fines,” TAPPI J. 7(7), 28-32.

Hamzeh, Y., Ekhtera, M. H., Hubbe, M. A., Izadyar, S., and Pourtahmasi, K. (2008), “Effects of process variables on poly-aluminum chloride (PAC)-rosin sizing performance under neutral papermaking conditions,” Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research 47, 4302-4307.

Bastidas, J. C., Pawlak, J. J., Venditti, R. A., Heitmann, J. A., Hubbe, M. A., and Kadla, J. F. (2008). “A colloidal probe microscopy study of cellulose/gypsum interactions,” Materials Characterization 59(2), 144-150.

Hubbe, M. A. (2008). “Minimizing the environmental impact of the papermaking process,” Proceedings of the 2nd IPEC Conference, Tianjin, China, Book A, 37-40.

Wu, N., Hubbe, M. A., Rojas, O. J., and Yamaguchi, T. (2008). “Penetration of high-charge cationic polymers into silica gel particles and cellulosic fibers,” Proceedings of the 2nd IPEC Conference, Tianjin, China, Book B, 626-649.

Hubbe, M. A., Rojas, O. J., Lucian, L. A., and Sain, M. (2008). “Cellulosic nanocomposites, A review,” BioRes. 3(3), 929-980.

Hubbe, M. A., Pawlak, J. J., and Koukoulas, A. A. (2008). "Paper's appearance: A review," BioRes. 3(2), 627-665.

Hubbe, M. A., Venditti, R. A., and Rojas, O. J. (2007). "What happens to cellulosic fibers during papermaking and recycling? A review," BioRes. 2(4), 739-788.

Hubbe, M. A., Rojas, O. J., Lucia, L. A., and Jung, T. M. (2007). “Consequences of the nanoporosity of cellulosic fibers on their streaming potential and their interactions with cationic polyelectrolytes,” Cellulose 14(6), 655-671.

Hubbe, M. A. and Pancyzk, M. (2007). “Dewatering of refined, bleached hardwood kraft pulp by gravity, vacuum, and centrifugation with applied pressure.  Part 1.  Physical and ionic effects,” O Papel 68(10), 74-87.

Hubbe, M. A. and Pancyzk, M. (2007). “Dewatering of refined, bleached hardwood kraft pulp by gravity, vacuum, and centrifugation with applied pressure.  Part 2.  Effects of wet-end additives,” O Papel 68(10), 88-100.

Hubbe, M. A., and Heitmann, J. A. (2007). "Review of factors affecting the release of water from cellulosic fibers during paper manufacture," BioRes. 2(3), 500-533.

Hubbe, M. A., Rojas, O. J., Argyropoulos, D. S., Wang, Y., Song, J., Sulic, N., and Sezaki, T., "Charge and the dry-strength performance of polyampholytes. Part 2. Colloidal effects," Colloids and Surfaces. A, Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 301, 23-32 (2007).

Wang, Y., Hubbe, M. A., Rojas, O. J., Argyropoulos, D. S., Wang, X., and Sezaki, T. "Charge and the dry-strength performance of polyampholytes. Part 3. Streaming potential analysis," Colloids and Surfaces. A, Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 301, 33-40 (2007).

Hubbe, M. A., Rojas, O. J., Lee, S. Y., Park, S., and Wang, Y. "Distinctive electrokinetic behavior of nanoporous silica particles treated with cationic polyelectrolyte," Colloids and surfaces. A, Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 292 (2-3), 271-278 (2007).

Hubbe, M. A. "Paper's resistance to wetting: A review of internal sizing chemicals and their effects," BioResources 2(1), 106-145 (2007).

Hubbe, M. A., Rojas, O. J., Sulic, N., and Sezaki, T. "Unique behavior of polyampholytes as dry-strength agents," Appita Journal 60(2), 106-111 (2007).

Wang, Y., Hubbe, M. A., Sezaki, T., Wang, X. W., Rojas, O. J., & Argyropoulos, D. S. "Aspects of retention and formation - The role of polyampholyte charge density on its interactions with cellulose," Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal 21(5), 638-645 (2006).

Hubbe, M. A. "Bonding between cellulosic fibers in the absence and presence of dry-strength agents - A review," BioResources 1(2), 281-318 (2006).

Song, J., Wang, Y., Hubbe, M. A., Rojas, O. J., Sulic, N., & Sezaki, T. "Charge and the dry-strength performance of polyampholytes. Part 1, Handsheet properties and polymer solution viscosity," Journal of Pulp and Paper Science, 32(3), 156-162 (2006).

Sezaki, T., Hubbe, M. A., Heitmann, J. A., and Argyropoulos, D. S. (2006). "Colloidal effects of acrylamide polyampholytes. Part 2, Adsorption onto cellulosic fibers," Colloids and surfaces. A, Physicochemical and engineering aspects, 289(1-3), 89-95.

Heermann, M. L., Welter, S. R., and Hubbe, M. A., "Effects of High Treatment Levels in a Dry-Strength Additive Program Based on Deposition of Polyelectrolyte Complexes: How Much Glue is Too Much?" Tappi J. 5 (6): 9-14 (2006).

Sezaki, T., Hubbe, M. A., Hietmann, J. A., Argyropoulos, D. S., and Wang, X., "Colloidal Effects of Acrylamide Polyampholytes. Part 1. Electrokinetic Behavior," Colloids Surf. A, accepted for publication (2006).

Hubbe, M. A., Tripattharanan, T., Heitmann, J. A., and Venditti, R. A. "The Positive Pulse Jar (PPJ): A flexible device for retention studies," Paperi ja Puu = Paper and Timber, 88(1), 39-45 (2006).

Lee, S. Y., Hubbe, M. A., & Saka, H. "Prospects for diodiesel as a byproduct of wood pulping - A review," BioResources, 1(1), 150-171 (2006).

Hubbe, M. A. "Sensing the electrokinetic potential of cellulosic fiber surfaces," BioResources, 1(1), 93-125 (2006).

Wang, Y., Hubbe, M. A., Sezaki, T., Wang, X., Rojas, O. J., and Argyropoulos, D. S. "The role of polyampholyte charge density on its interactions with cellulose," Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, 21(5), 158-165 (2006).

Hubbe, M. A., Rojas, O. J., and Venditti, R. A., "Control of Tacky Deposits on Paper Machines - A Review," Nordic Pulp Paper Res. J., accepted for publication (2006).

Hubbe, M. A., Emerging Technologies in Flocculation, Pira International, Leatherhead, UK, 2005.

Hubbe, M. A., "Dry-Strength Development by Polyelectrolyte Complex Deposition onto Non-Bonding Glass Fibers," J. Pulp Paper Sci. 31 (4): 159-166 (2005).

Hubbe, M. A., "Mechanistic Aspects of Microparticle Systems," Tappi J. 4 (11): 23-28 (2005).

Bastidas, J. C., Pawlak, J. J., Venditti, R. A., Heitmann, J. A., Hubbe, M. A., and Dadla, J. F., "Gypsum-Cellulose Interactions - A Colloidal Probe Microscopy Study," Proc. 13th Internat. Symp. Wood Fiber Pulping Chem., 59th Appita Annual Conf., Vol. 2, New Zealand Forest Council, 2005.

Lofton, M. C., Moore, S. M., Hubbe, M. A., and Lee, S. Y., "Polyelectrolyte Complex Deposition as a Mechanism of Paper Dry-Strength Development," Tappi J. 4 (9): 3-7 (2005).

Hubbe, M. A., "Paper," in Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, Online Edition, Wiley, New York, 2005.

McNeal, M. R., Nanko, H., and Hubbe, M. A., "Imaging of Macromolecular Events Occurring during the Manufacture of Paper," Proc. XIII Fundamental Research Symposium, Cambridge, 2005.

Rojas, O. J., Byrd, M. V., Hubbe, M. A., and Claesson, P. M., "On the Origins of Adhesion in Papermaking Systems," Proc. XIII Fundamental Research Symposium, Cambridge, 2005.

Hubbe, M. A., "Why Do Different Charge Demand Tests Give Different Endpoints?" Proc. Pira 2005 Sci. Tech. Advan. Wet End Chem., Lisbon, Portugal, Pira International, Leatherhead, Surrey, UK, 2005.

Hubbe, M. A., and Zhang, M., "Recovered Kraft Fibers and Wet-End Dry-Strength Polymers," Proc. TAPPI Practical Papermakers Conf., TAPPI Press, Atlanta, 2005.

Hubbe, M. A., and Rojas, O. J., "The Paradox of Papermaking," Chem. Eng. Education 39 ( ): ___ (2005).

Welf, E. S., Venditti, R. A., Hubbe, M. A., and Pawlak, J., "The Effects of Heating Without Water Removal and Drying on the Swelling as Measured by Water Retention Value and Degradation as Measured by Intrinsic Viscosity of Cellulose Papermaking Fibers," Prog. Paper Recycling 14 (3): 1-9 (2005).

Hubbe, M. A., "Acidic and Alkaline Sizings for Printing, Writing, and Drawing Papers," Book and Paper Annual __: __ (2005); also in Proc. Contemp. Machine-made Paper, Amer. Inst. Conservation Historic Artistic Works, Oct. 20-23, 2004, Dalton, MA

Hubbe, M. A., Moore, S. M., and Lee, S. Y., "Effects of Charge Ratios and Cationic Polymer Nature on Polyelectrolyte Complex Deposition onto Cellulose," Indus. Eng. Chem. Res. 44 (9): 3068-3074 (2005).

Hubbe, M. A., Emerging Technologies in Wet End Chemistry, Pira International, Leatherhead, UK, 2005.

Hubbe, M. A., and Wang, F., "Charge-Related Measurements - A Reappraisal. Part 2: Fiber-Pad Streaming Potential," Paper Technol. 45 (9): 27-34 (2004).

Hubbe, M. A., and Chen, J., "Charge-Related Measurements - A Reappraisal. Part 1: Streaming Current," Paper Technol. 45 (8): 17-23 (2004).

Hubbe, M. A., Chen, J., and Heitmann, J. A., "Measurement and Impact of Charge: A Practical Guide," Solutions! 87 (11): 47-49 (2004).

Chen, J., Heitmann, J. A., Chang, H.-M., Hubbe, M. A., and Venditti, R. A., "The Effect of Paper Additives on Toner Agglomeration during the Recycling Process," Prog. Paper Recyling 13 (14): 16-23 (2004).

Hubbe, M. A., and Gill, R. A., "Filler Particle Shape vs. Paper Properties - A Review," Proc. Spring Tech. Conf., TAPPI Press, Atlanta, 2004.

Rojas, O. J., and Hubbe, M. A., "The Dispersion Science of Papermaking," J. Dispersion Sci. Technol., J. Dispersion Sci. Technol. 25 (6): 713-732 (2004).

Chen, J., Hubbe, M. A., Heitmann, J. A., Argyropoulos, D. S., and Rojas, O. J., "Dependency of Polyelectrolyte Complex Stoichiometry on the Order of Addition. 2. Aluminum Chloride and Poly-vinylsulfate," Colloids Surf. A 246 (1-3): 71-79 (2004).

Hubbe, M. A., "Pulp and Paper Chemical Additives," Chapter (MS 135) Encyclopedia of Forest Sciences, Elsevier Science and Technology, 2004.

Hubbe, M. A., Tripattharanan, T., Heitmann, J. A., and Venditti, R. A., "The 'Positive Pulse Jar' (PPJ): A Flexible Device for Retention Studies," Paperi ja Puu, accepted for publication (2004).

Tripattharanan, T., Hubbe, M. A., Venditti, R. A., and Heitmann, J. A., "Effect of Idealized Flow Conditions on Retention Aid Performance. 1. Cationic Acrylamide Copolymer," Appita J. 57 (5): 404-410 (2004).

Tripattharanan, T., Hubbe, M. A., Venditti, R. A., and Heitmann, J. A., "Effect of Idealized Flow Conditions on Retention Aid Performance. 2. Polymer Bridging, Charged Patches, and Charge Neutralization" Appita J. 57 (6): 448-454 (2004).

Zhang, M., Hubbe, M. A., Venditti, R. A., and Heitmann, J. A., "Refining to Overcome Effects of Drying Unbleached Kraft Fibers in the Presence or Absence of Sugar," Progress in Paper Recycling 13 (2): 5-12 (2004).

Zhang, M., Hubbe, M. A., Venditti, R. A., and Heitmann, J. A., "Effects of Sugar Addition Before Drying on the Wet-Flexibility of Redispersed Kraft Fibers," J. Pulp Paper Sci. 30 (1): in press (2004).

Hubbe, M. A., Venditti, R. A., Barbour, R. L., and Zhang, M., "Changes to Unbleached Kraft Fibers Due to Drying and Recycling," Progress in Paper Recycling 12 (3): 11-20 (2003) .

Chen, J., Heitmann, J. A., and Hubbe, M. A., "Dependency of Polyelectrolyte Complex Stoichiometry on the Order of Addition. 1. Effect of Salt Concentration during Streaming Current Titrations with Strong Poly-acid and Poly-base," Colloids Surf. 223 (1-3): 215-230 (2003).

Hubbe, M. A., Jackson, T. L., and Zhang, M., "Fiber Surface Saturation as a Strategy to Optimize Dual-Polymer Dry Strength Treatment," Tappi J. 2 (11): 7-12 (2003).

Hubbe, M. A., "Microparticle Programs for Drainage and Retention," in Nano- Microparticles Technology, J. Rodriguez, Ed., Chapter 1, TAPPI Press, 2004.

Hubbe, M. A., Venditti, R. A., Barbour, R. L., and Zhang, M., "Changes to Unbleached Kraft Fibers Due to Drying and Recycling," Progress in Paper Recycling 12 (3): 11-20 (2003).

Hubbe, M. A., "Selecting Lab Tests to Predict Effectiveness of Retention and Drainage Aid Programs," Paper Technol. 44 (9): 20-34 (2003); originally published in Proc. 4th Pira Internat. Conf. Sci. Tech. Advan. Fillers & Pigments for Papermakers, Barcelona, Spain, May 20-21, 2003.

Zhang, M., Hubbe, M. A., Venditti, R. A., and Heitmann, J. A., "Can Recycled Kraft Fibers Benefit from Chemical Addition Before They Are First Dried?," APPITA J. 55 (3): 135 (2002)

Wang, F., and Hubbe, M. A., "Charge Properties of Fibers in the Paper Mill Environment. 1. Effect of Electrical Conductivity," J. Pulp Paper Science, in press, Nov. 2002.

Wang, F., and Hubbe, M. A., "Development and Evaluation of an Automated Streaming Potential Measurement Device," Colloids and Surfaces A, 194: 221 (2001).

Chen, J., Hubbe, M. A., and Heitmann, J. A., "Measurement of Colloidal Charge in the Paper Mill by Streaming Current," Proc. TAPPI Papermakers Conf., 2001.

Zhang, M., Hubbe, M. A., Venditti, R. A., and Heitmann, J. A., "Effect of Chemical Pretreatments of Never-Dried Pulp on the Strength of Recycled Linerboard," Proc. TAPPI Papermakers Conf., 2001.

Hubbe, M. A., and Wang, F., "Where to Add Retention Aid: Issues of Time and Shear," Solutions! 2002 (3): 61 (2002); TAPPI J. 1 (3): (2002); and Proc. TAPPI Papermakers Conf., 2001; also reprinted in O Papel.

Hubbe, M. A., "Method for Determining Electrokinetic Properties of Papermaking Furnish," U. S. Patent 6,176,974, Jan. 3, 2001.

Hubbe, M. A., "Reversibility of Polymer-Induced Fiber Flocculation by Shear. 2. Multicomponent Chemical Treatments" Nordic Pulp and Paper Research Journal, 16 (4): 369, 2001.

Hubbe, M. A., "Reversibility of Polymer-Induced Fiber Flocculation by Shear. 1. Experimental Methods" Nordic Pulp and Paper Research Journal, 15 (5): 545 (2000).

Wang, F., Tanaka, H., Kitaoka, T., and Hubbe, M. A., "Distribution Characteristics of Rosin Size and their Effect on the Internal Sizing of Paper," Nordic Pulp and Paper Research Journal 15 (5): 416 (2000).

Hubbe, M. A., "Selecting and Interpreting Colloidal Charge Measurements," Proc. Scientific and Technical Advances in Wet End Chemistry," PIRA, Barcelona, June 19-20, 2000.

Olsen, W. L., Zhu, H., and Hubbe, M. A., "Method of Improving Pulp Freeness using Cellulase and Pectinase Enzymes," U. S. Patent 6,066,233, May 23, 2000.

Zhang, M., Hubbe, M. A., Venditti, R. A., and Heitmann, J. A., "Loss of bonding Strength Dye to Drying and Repulping of Kraft Fibers: Effects of Chemical Additives," Proc. International Symposium on Environmentally Friendly and Emerging Technologies for a Sustainable Pulp and Paper Industry, Taipei, Taiwan, April 25-27, 2000.

Chen, J., Hubbe, M. A., Heitmann, J. A., and Chang, H.-M., "The Effect of Paper Additives on Agglomeration During the Recycling Process," Proc. International Symposium on Environmentally Friendly and Emerging Technologies for a Sustainable Pulp and Paper Industry, Taipei, Taiwan, April 25-27, 2000.

Hubbe, M. A., U.S. Patent 5,936,151, Aug. 10, 1999, "Method and Apparatus for Measuring an Electrical Property of Papermaking Furnish."

Hubbe, M. A., Wagle, D. G., and Ruckel, E. R., U.S. Patent 5,958,180, Sept. 28, 1999, "Method for Increasing the Strength of a Paper of Paperboard Product."

Hubbe, M. A., "Difficult Furnishes," Proc. TAPPI '99, 1353-1367; literature review and a proposal to broaden the view of what types of paper furnish components need to be considered in relationship to runnability and product quality.

Hubbe, M. A., "Paper: Wetting and Penetration of Liquids into," Encyclopedia of Materials Technologies, Elsevier; Chapter solicited by subject editor.

Bennett, M. B. O., Crouse, J. W., Hubbe, M. A., and Paukstra, P. M., "Engineers and Papermakers Bond for Better Papermaking at TAPPI's First Superconference," Tappi J. 81 (3): 239 (1998).

Hubbe, M. A., "Surface Analysis of Paper [Book Review]," Tappi J. 80 (5): 239 (1997).

Hubbe, M. A., "Retention Aids," Proc. TAPPI Short Course on Dyes, Fillers, and Pigments, Chicago, April 1995.

Hubbe, M. A. "Colloidal Aspects of Aluminum Chemistry in Papermaking," presented at the ACS Colloids Symposium in Toronto, June 1993.

Hubbe, M. A., "Characterization of Liquid Absorption into Porous Media," with M. B. Lyne, presented at TRI/Princeton 62nd Ann. Conf., April 30, 1992.

Lisnyansky, K., and Hubbe, M. A. "System for On-Line Measurement of Color, Opacity, and Reflectance of a Translucent Moving Web," U.S. Patent 5,047,652, Sept. 10, 1991.

Hubbe, M. A., "How Do Retention Aids Work," Proc. TAPPI Papermakers Conf., 389-398 (1988).

Hubbe, M. A., "Detachment of Colloidal Hydrous Oxide Spheres from Flat Solids Exposed to Flow. 3. Forces of Adhesion," Colloids Surf. 25: 311-324 (1987).

Hubbe, M. A., "Detachment of Colloidal Hydrous Oxide Spheres from Flat Solids Exposed to Flow. 4. Effects of Polyelectrolytes," Colloids Surf. 25: 325-339 (1987).

Hubbe, M. A., "Retention and Hydrodynamic Shear," Tappi J. 69 (8): 116-117 (Aug. 1986).

Hubbe, M. A., "Detachment of Colloidal Hydrous Oxide Spheres from Flat Solids Exposed to Flow. 1. Experimental System," Colloids and Surfaces 16: 227-248 (1985).

Hubbe, M. A., "Detachment of Colloidal Hydrous Oxide Spheres from Flat Solids Exposed to Flow. 2. Mechanism of Release," Colloids Surf. 16: 249-270 (1985).

Hubbe, M. A., "Theory of Detachment of Colloidal Particles from Flat Surfaces Exposed to Flow," Colloids and Surfaces 12: 151-178 (1984).

Hubbe, M. A., "Bonding of Filler to Cellulose: Effects of Cationic Retention Aids," Proc. TAPPI 1984 Papermakers Conf., 23.

Hubbe, M. A., "Adhesion and Detachment of Biological Cells in Vitro," Prog. Surface Sci. 11 (2): 65-137 (1981).

Hubbe, M. A., "A Polarization Resistance Corrosivity Test with a Correction for Resistivity," British Corrosion J. 15 (4): 193-197 (1980).

Hubbe, M. A., "A Modified Reporting Procedure for Polyelectrolyte Titrations," Tappi 62 (8): 120-121 (1979).

Hubbe, M. A., and D. F. Bowers, "Survey of White Water Corrosivity in 30 North European Paper Mills," Paper Trade J. 1978: 53-56 (Nov. 1, 1978).


Contact information for NCSU, the Department of Wood & Paper Science, and the Wet-End Chemistry Program: How to contact us

Department of Wood and Paper Science: DEPARTMENTAL WEBSITE

North Carolina State University: Link to University website

Hubbe, Martin A., Ph.D. m_hubbe@ncsu.edu
(919) 513-3022

Paper machine wet-end chemistry

Heitmann, John A., Ph.D. heitmann@ncsu.edu
(919) 515-7711

Paper machine operations
Enzyme use in paper manufacture

Jameel, Hasan, Ph.D. h_jameel@ncsu.edu
(919) 515-7739
Pulping and bleaching processes
Venditti, Richard A., Ph.D. richard_venditti@ncsu.edu
(919) 515-6185

Paper recycling and de-inking
Super-critical CO2 applications

Argyropoulos, Dimitris S., Ph.D. dimitris.argyropoulos@ncsu.edu
(919) 515-7708
Wood chemistry, polysulfide pulping, polysaccharide chemistry
Kirkman, Adriana G., Ph.D. AG_Kirkman@ncsu.edu
(919) 515-5707
Process simulation and control
Lucia, Lucian lucian_lucia@ncsu.edu (919) 515-7707 Wood chemistry
Pawlak, Joel J., Ph.D. jjpawlak@unity.ncsu.edu
(919) 513-0511
Paper physics, atomic force microscopy, enyzymatic polishing, wet-end chemistry
Rojas, Orlando, Ph.D. orlando_rojas@ncsu.edu
(919) 513-7494
Paper physics, macromolecular behavior, colloidal science
Chang, Hou-Min, Ph.D. hchang@unity.ncsu.edu
(919) 515-7712
Pulping and bleaching chemistry
Byrd, Med V., Ph.D. med_byrd@ncsu.edu
(919) 515-5790
Non-wood fiber processing and uses
Pilot plant operations training
Wheeler, Eliz. A., Ph.D. xylem@unity.ncsu.edu
Fiber anatomy and identification

Information on this site is provided as a public service by Dr. Marty Hubbe of the Department of Wood and Paper Science at North Carolina State University. While the information is intended to be accurate, users of the information must accept full risk. When errors in the contents of this site are found, please send a message to the website caretaker by using the e-mail link provided below (final item):

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