How to Use this Trouble-Shooting Guide
Welcome to the troubleshooting guide. The purpose of this guide is to help overcome a variety of wet-end chemistry-related problems that are commonly encountered by papermakers. Emphasis here is placed on problems that involve papermaking additives.
Users of information in this guide retain full responsibility for safety, as well as for compliance with all relevant laws and existing patents. Since new patents are continually granted, there has been no attempt in this guide to deal with such issues. Many strategies commonly employed by papermakers are covered by one or several patents.
How you use this guide will depend on your situation. Most readers will want to consult the ALPHABETICAL LIST of some commonly observed problems involving chemical additives and either the quality or the production efficiency of paper or paperboard. It is recommended to click on the label in the list that most closely corresponds to the issue with which you are dealing. The guide then will lead you to problem-solving recommendations. In many cases an initial page of problem-solving hints will provide links to more specific issues, literature resources, and basic background information about chemicals and processes. Users also are encouraged to return to the alphabetical list and consider whether other items on the list describe other aspects of their main problem.
Publications are available to help solve the many papermaking problems that fall outside of the limited scope of this guide. Some of the most useful general references are given in the list that follows. Additional references are given on the pages within this guide that deal with specific problems.
General References: Wet-End Chemistry and Troubleshooting
Anon., Operating Difficulties on Fine, Kraft, and Specialty Paper Machines, Tech. Section, CPPA, Montreal, 15th printing, 1979.
Casey, J. P., Ed., Pulp and Paper Chemistry and Chemical Technology, 3rd Ed., Vol. III, Wiley-Interscience, 1980, ISBN 0-471-03177-1, NRL TS1105 C9.
Gess, J. M., and Wilson, P. H., Troubleshooting the Papermaking Process, TAPPI Press, Atlanta, 2001, ISBN 1-930657-58-7, TP R298, www.tappi.org.
Neimo, L, Papermaking Chemistry, Papermaking Science and Technology Series, Fapet Oy, Helsinki, 1999, ISBN 952-5216-04-7.
Paulapuro, H., Papermaking Part 1, Stock Preparation and Wet End, Papermaking Science and Technology Series, Fapet Oy, Helsinki, 2000, ISBN 952-5216-08-X, NRL TS1105 P26.
Roberts, J. C., Ed., Paper Chemistry, 2nd Ed., Blackie Academic and Prof., London, 1996, ISBN 0-7514-0236-2, NRL TS 110 P37.
Scott, W. E., Principles of Wet End Chemistry, TAPPI Press, Atlanta, 1996, ISBN 0-89852-286-2, www.tappi.org.
Smook, G. A., Handbook for Pulp and Paper Technologists, Angus Wilde Pub., Vancouver, 1992, ISBN 0-9694628-1-6.
Users of information in this guide retain full responsibility for safety, as well as for compliance with all relevant laws and existing patents.
Always consult the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for each additive. It is recommended to develop safe operating procedures and periodically to test paper machine staff on their knowledge of these procedures. Guidelines provided by chemical vendors, as well as MSDS information, can be used as a starting point for developing procedures that fit local needs. The safe operating procedures should be reviewed periodically, and also on any occasion where there is an accident or near-miss.
Various chemical treatments are covered by stringent laws concerning toxic emissions. Some of these laws are administered by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Others are administered by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Laws administered by the FDA often depend on the potential end-use of the paper product. Vendors of papermaking chemicals, as well as certain environmental consultants, are able to provide guidance related to these issues.
Many strategies commonly employed by papermakers are covered by one or several patents. Since new patents are continually granted, there has been no attempt in this guide to deal with such issues. To avoid unintentional infringement it is most common to work with one or more representatives from chemical supplier companies; in many cases the purchase of chemicals from a certain chemical company provides permission to use that chemical is a way that is covered by a patent. Alternatively, those who develop in-house proprietary technology should seriously consider patenting novel aspects of their compositions, devices, or procedures. Searching for and getting access to US patents has become much easier, thanks to the Internet.
Users of ideas from this guide are urged to keep in mind that (a) not all problems can be solved, especially within restraints of cost and other requirements; (b) lengthy trials might be needed to achieve a modified recipe or procedures for wet-end additives that meet all product requirements; and (c) it is frequently the case that changes made to address one problem give rise to other problems, especially those that involve end-use performance.
PLEASE NOTE: The information in this Guide is provided as a public service by Dr. Martin A. Hubbe of the Department of Wood and Paper Science at North Carolina State University (email@example.com). Users of the information contained on these pages assume complete responsibility to make sure that their practices are safe and do not infringe upon an existing patent. There has been no attempt here to give full safety instructions or to make note of all relevant patents governing the use of additives. Please send corrections if you find errors or points that need better clarification.