Opportunities in Wet-End Chemistry
Mini-Encyclopedia of Papermaking Wet-End Chemistry

Additives and Ingredients, their Composition, Functions, Strategies for Use, and Common Wet-End Chemical Terms

Additives & Ingredients Definitions & Concepts Equipment & Unit Operations Glossary (Short Definitions)

Acrylamide Copolymers
Alkenylsuccinic Anhydride (ASA)
Alkylketene Dimer (AKD)
Alum
Amphoteric Starch
Anionic Polyacyramide (aPAM)
Anionic Trash
Anti-Foam / Defoamer
Bentonite
Biocides
Bleached Kraft Pulp
Calcium Carbonate
Cationic Direct Dyes
Cationic Starch
Chalk (a calcium carbonate filler)
Chlorine Dioxide (as a biocide)
Clay (filler)
Colloids
Colloidal Silica
Defoamer / Anti-Foam
De-Inking Additives
Detackifiers
Direct Dyes
Dissolved & Colloidal Substances (DCS)
Dry-Strength Resin
Dyes
Fibers
Fines (Fiber Fines)
Filler
Fluorescent Whitening Agents (FWAs)
Ground Calcium Carbonate (GCC)
Hardwood
Kaolin
Kraft Pulp
Mixed Office Waste (MOW)
Montmorillonite (Bentonite)
Old Corrugated Container Pulp (OCC)
Old News Paper Pulp (ONP)
Optical Brighteners (OBAs)
Pitch (Wood Resins)
Polyacrylamide
Polyaluminum Chloride (PAC)
Polyaluminum Silicasulate (PASS)
Polyamidoamine-Epichlorohydrin (PAAE)
Polyamines (high-charge cationics)
Polydiallyldimethylammonium Chloride (DADMAC)
Polyethylene Imine (PEI)
Polyethylene Oxide (PEO)
Precipitated Calcium Carbonate (PCC)
Retention Aid
Rosin Emulsion Size
Rosin Soap Size
Slimacide
Sizing Agents (internal)
Softwood
Stickies
Starch
Surface Size Additives
Talc (for pitch control and as a filler)
Titanium Dioxide
Toner
Unbleached Kraft Pulp
Wet-Strength Resin
White Pitch

 

Acidity
Adsorption
Alkalinity
Anionic
Ash
Bridging
Cationic
Cationic demand
Charge
Charge neutralization
Charged patch model
Coagulation
Colloid
Colloid titration
Consistency
Critical surface tension
Crowding factor
Dispersion
Double-layer
Drainage
Dry line
Dry strength
Emulsion
Extensional viscosity
Fibrillation
Fines
First-pass retention
Flocs: hard vs. soft
Formation
Freeness
Hydrogen bond
Hydrophilic
Hydrophobic
Interfering substances
Jet-to-wire speed difference
Metamerism
Microelectrophoresis
Microparticle effect
Patch model
Plane of shear
PH
Polyelectrolytes
Relative bonded area
Retention
Reversibility of flocculation
Site-blocking
Slip plane
Stability
Stationary level
Steric stabilization
Streaming current
Streaming potential
Surfactants
Total acidity
Water retention value
Wet end
Wet strength
Wet-web strength
White water
Zeta potential

Alkaline papermaking
Beating
Boil-out
Calcining
Cleaning
Coagulation
Couch
Dragging the sheet
Drainage and dewatering
Fan pump
Flocculation
Foil
Forming
Forming Fabric
Fourdrinier
Gap former
Graniting
Headbox
Hydrocyclone
Hydrolysis
Hydrofoil
Inversion of an emulsion
Pressure forming
Pressure-screen
Quill
Rectifier roll
Refining
Reticulation
Rushing the sheet
Saponification
Save-all
Screens
Silo
Sizing
Slaking
Slice
Stuff box
Top-former
Tray
Twin-wire
Velocity forming
Wire
Abrasion
Acicular
Acid alum
Acidic paper making
Acidity
Adsorption
Agglomerate
Air-float clay
AKD
Alkaline pa-permaking
Alkalinity
Alkyl group
Alum
Aluminum trihydrate
Amphoteric
Amylopectin
Amylose
Anatase
Anionic
Anionic trash
Antichlors
Antifoam
Apparent density
Approach flow
Aragonite
Artificial cure
ASA
Ash content
Auxo-chromes
Barrier chemistry
Basic dyes
Bentonite
Biocides
Bleedfastness
Boil-out
Breaking length
Breaks of the web
Bridging
Brightness
Britt jar
Broke
Brown-stock washers
Buffer
Bulk
Calcined clay
Calcite
Calcium carbonate
Calcium oxalate
Caliper
Carboxyl group
Carry-over
Cationic
Cationic demand
Cationic direct dyes
Cationic starch
Caustic soda
Cellulose
Charge demand
Charge neu-tralization
Charge patch
Chalk
Chelating agents
Chromato-graphy
Chromophore Clay
Cleaners
Closed water sys.
Coagulation
COF
Colloidal
Colloidal silica
Complexation
Colloidal titration
Conductivity
Consistency
Contact angle
Converting
Coordination
Copolymer
Couch roll
Counter-ion
Covalent
Crosslinking
Crystal modifier
CTMP
Curing
DCS
Deculator
Defoamer
Delaminated clay
Deposits
Derivative
Detackifier
DIP
Direct dyes
Directionality
Dirt
Dispersants
Dispersed rosin size
Dissociation
Dissolved air
Drainage
Dry strength
Dye
EBS
Electrolytes
Electrophoretic mobility
Emulsion
Entrained air
Enzyme
Equilibria
Exhaustion
Extended rosin size
Extractives
Fan pump
Fastness
Fatty acids
Feathering
Felt filling
Fibrils
Fine paper
Fines
Fillers
First-pass retention
Fixative
Flocculation
Fluorescent
Fluorescent whitening agent
Foil
Formation
Forming fabric
Fortified rosin size
Freeness
FTIR
Fugitive sizing
Furnish
Gloss
Graniting

Guar gum
Hardness
Hard sizing
Hemi-cellulose
HST
Hydration
Hydrolysis
Hydrolyzate
Hydrogen bond
Hydrophobic
Hydrophile
Inorganic
Interfering substance
Internal bond
Internal sizing
Inversion of an emulsion
Ion
Jet cooking
Kaolin
Lattice substitution
Light absorption
Lignin
Lipophile
Lumen
Machine chest
Makedown
Marangoni effect
Micro-particles
Middle lamella
Monomer
Multi-valent
Neutrali-zation
Non-process elements
Olation
Online
Opacity
Optical brightener
Osmotic pressure
Over-cationized
Oxidants
Oxolation
PAC, poly-aluminum chloride
PAM, poly-acrylamide
Parenchyma
Passivation
Paste rosin size
PCC
PEI, poly-ethylenimine
PEO, poly-ethylene oxide
Permanent wet strength
pH
Phenolic
Pigment
Pinholes
Pitch
Plate counts
Polarization
Polyamine
Poly-DADMAC
Polymer
Polysacc-harides
Post-consumer waste
Precipitate
Primary fines
Primary wall
Protection
PVSK
Ray cells
Reactive size
Refining
Reinforce-ment
Repulping
Resin acids
Restabiliz-ation
Retention
Retention aids
Rhombo-hedral
Rosin acid
Rosin size
Rutile
S2 sublayer
Salts
Saponi-fyable
Save-all
SBR
Scale
Scaleno-hedral
Screen(s)
Secondary fines
Shear
Size press
Size reversion
Sizing
Slime
Slip
Slip plane
Soap sizing
Species
Specific surface area
Spreading
Spreading coefficient
Stable suspension
Starch
Stickies
Streaming current
Streaming potential
Stuff box
Sulfate redu-cing bacteria
Surface sizing
Surface tension
Surfactant
Synthetic sizes
Talc
Temporary wet strength
Termo-setting
Titration
Thick stock
Thin stock
TMP
Titanium dioxide
Tracheid
Tray water
Triglycerides
Trim addition
Turbidity
Turbulence
Two-sidedness
Unsaponi-fiable
Venturi
Vessels
Viscosity
Wall
Washing of pulp
Waxes
Weak acid
Wet chemistry
Wet end of a paper machine
Wet web strength
Wet-strength
Wettability
Whiteness
White pitch
White water
Wire
X-ray fluorescence
Yield of paper pulp
Z-direction
Zeta potential

PLEASE NOTE: Users of the information contained on these pages assume complete responsibility to make sure that their practices are safe and do not infringe upon an existing patent. There has been no attempt here to give full safety instructions or to make note of all relevant patents governing the use of additives. Please send corrections if you find errors or points that need better clarification.


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