Ecosystem Management

I.  Defining Ecosystem Management

A.   The three faces of ecosystem management (Yaffee 1999)

1.  Environmentally-sensitive, multiple use management recognizes the limits of ecosystems

2.  Ecosystem-based approaches to resource management recognizes system complexity

3.  Ecoregional management emphasizes landscape-scale management as a fundamental goal

B.  Differences between resource and ecosystem management

C.  Defining Ecosystem Management

1) Hierarchical Context
2) Ecological Boundaries
- Spatial scale is typically at the watershed, landscape, or ecoregional levels
- Often extends beyond “protected” areas

3) Ecological Integrity
    - Often extends beyond protection of species and area, and to managing for disturbances and species interactions

4) Interagency Cooperation

5) Humans Embedded in Nature
- Focus is on biodiversity and ecosystem services

D. Ecological precepts of ecosystem management:

1) Ecosystems are dynamic in space and time
2) Expect uncertainty, surprise, and limits to knowledge.

E.  To make ecosystem management more practical, focus has shifted to a broader array of ecosystem services

1.  Provisioning services
- Food
- Pharmaceutical products
- Energy

2.  Regulating services
 - Carbon sequestration and climate regulation
 - Waste decomposition and detoxification
 - Nutrient dispersal and cycling

3.  Supporting services
 - Purification of water and air
 - Crop pollination and seed dispersal
 - Pest control

4.  Cultural services
 - Aesthetics

F.  Examples
1.  NYC water supply

2.  Pollination Services, Ricketts, et al.

3.  Pollination Services, Kremen, et al.

4.  Disease amelioration

G.  Valuing ecosystem services

1.  Costanza et al.

2.  The value of land depends on context: assessing benefit transfer

3.  Many attempts to quantify value of wild nature

4.  Natural Capital Project

    -- InVEST

H.  Is biodiversity conservation a byproduct of conserving services, or is it essential to the preservation of services?

1.  Ecosystem services are related to ecosystem function

        -  A great deal of research as focused on how biodiversity affects ecosystem functioning
        -  Usually at smaller scales, with un-natural species sets
        -  As functions, usually focus on productivity, nutrient use, and invasion rate

I.  A few items of review from Lecture 1