Marine Reserve Design

I.  Food web-alteration, background
    1.  Top-down v. bottom-up
    2.  Trophic cascade
    3.  Keystone species concept

A. Terrestrial example
    1. How coyotes increase bird diversity

B.  Marine examples

    1.  Collapse of marine fisheries

    2. Reduction in top predators

    3. Fishing down food webs

    4.  Indirect effects of sea otter removal

    5.  Comparing historical to present day marine food webs

IV.  Marine Protected Areas

A.  Do they work?

    1.  Easier to determine effects within reserves
    2.  Harder to determine effects beyond reserve boundaries

B.  Design
    1. Size – a few to 10’s of km radius
       - Incorporate variety of habitats
       - Tradeoffs between protection and fisheries

    2. Distance – variable, but in km

       -  Max 15-20 km
       -  Shorter when self recruitment important

    3.  Connectivity depends on currents

    4.  Protection difficult
        - Size correlated with distance from shore

    5.  For climate change, need to include a variety of temperatures, replicates of habitats

    6.  Dynamic reserves??

B.  Review of reserves for coral reefs

C.  Do MPA's work?
    - Easy to demonstrate that they have impacts within reserves, and immediately adjacent
    - Harder to determine spatial impacts