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Habitat loss and fragmentation

Meffe, GK and CR Carroll, eds.  1997.  Principles of conservation biology.  Sinauer Associates, Inc, Sunderland Massachusetts.  Chapters 7, 9-10

Metapopulation and Source-sink Models
Levins, R. 1969. Some demographic and genetic consequences of environmental heterogeneity for biological control. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of America 15:237-240.

Pulliam, HR.  1988.  Sources, sinks, and population regulation.  The American Naturalist 132:652-661.

Hanski, I. 1994. A practical model of metapopulation dynamics. Journal of Animal Ecology 63:151-162.

Hanski, I. 1994. Patch-occupancy dynamics in fragmented landscapes. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 9:131-135.

Hanski, I.A, and ME Gilpin. 1997.  Metapopulation biology: ecology, genetics, and evolution.  Academic Press, New York, New York.
Empirical studies and reviews
Hanski, I.  1998.  Metapopulation dynamics.  Nature 396:41-49.

Harrison, S. and A. D. Taylor. 1997. Empirical evidence for metapopulation dynamics. Pages 27-42 In IA Hanski and ME
Gilpin, eds., Metapopulation biology: ecology, genetics and evolution.  Academic Press, New York, New York.
Harrison, S, DD Murphy, PR Ehrlich.  1988.  Distribution of the bay checkerspot butterfly, Euphydryas editha bayensis: evidence for a metapopulation model.  The American Naturalist 132:360-382.
Sjögren, P.  1991.  Extinction and isolation gradients in metapopulations: the case of the pool frog.  Biological Journal of the Linnean Society.  42:135-147.
Diffendorfer, JE.  1998.  Testing models of source-sink dynamics and balanced dispersal.  Oikos 81:417-433.
Boughton, DA.  1999.  Empirical evidence for complex source-sink dynamics with alternative states in a butterfly metapopulation.  Ecology 80:2727-2739.

Urban, D., and T Keitt.  2001.  Landscape connectivity: a graph-theoretic perspective.  Ecology 82:1205-1218.

Moilanen, A and M Nieminen.  2002.  Simple connectivity measures in spatial ecology.  Ecology 83:1131-1145.

Lande, R.  1988.  Demographic models of the northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina).  Oecologia 75:601-607.
Wooton, JT, DA Bell.  1992.  A metapopulation model of the peregrine falcon in California: viability and management strategies.  Ecological Applications 2:307-321.
Morris, WF, and DF Doak.  2002.  Quantitative conservation biology: theory and practice of population viability analysis.  Sinauer Associates, Inc, Sunderland, Massachusetts.  Ch. 10, 11.

Edge and Matrix effects
Wilcove, DS.  1985.  Nest predation in forest tracts and the decline of migratory songbirds.  Ecology 66:1211-1214.
Laurance, WF, SG Laurance, LV Ferreira, JM Rankin- de Merona, C Gascon, TE Lovejoy.  1997. Biomass collapse in Amazonian forest fragments.  Science 278:1117-1118.
Sisk, TD, NM Haddad, PR Ehrlich.  1997.  Bird assemblages in patchy woodlands: modeling the effects of edge and matrix habitats.  Ecological Applications 7:1170-1180.
Schultz, CB.  1998.  Dispersal behavior and its implications for reserve design in a rare Oregon butterfly.  Conservation Biology 12:284-292.
Moilanen, A, and I Hanski.  1998.  Metapopulation dynamics: effects of habitat quality and landscape structure.  Ecology 79:2503-2515.
Ricketts, T.H.  2001.  The matrix matters: effective isolation in fragmented landscapes.  The American Naturalist 158:87-99.

Ries, L, RJ Fletcher, Jr, J Battin, TD Sisk.  2004.  Ecological responses to habitat edges: mechanisms, models, and variability explained.  Annual Reviews of Ecology and Systematics 35:491-522.