BIO 360  Ecology

Review Questions, Partial Exam 4
(Note: in reviewing for the cumulative exam, review questions from all four partial exams, as well as the exams themselves)

1.  What are tradeoffs in the evolution of characteristics that are distinctly human?

2.  Here is an example of a previous exam question:
Defend or refute:  'Since divergence from ancestors that became chimps, homonid evolution has been characterized by numerous speciation and extinction events.'

3.  What are keystone species?  How do top-down and bottom-up interactions regulate communities? 

4.  What are the genetic and demographic factors that affect small populations?  What are the implications of these factors for conservation of endangered species?

5.  Why are there more species in the tropics than in the temperate zone?  Think of a number of factors that affect biodiversity; what is the relationship between that factor and the number of species?

6.  What are the implications of island biogeography for conservation of fragmented landscapes?

7.  What is the difference between primary and secondary succession?  How do interactions among species influence the trajectory of succession?

8.  What is the difference between endogenous and exogenous disturbance?  Briefly, what are the effects of disturbances on communities?

9.  What are characteristics of invasive species?  What are characteristics of ecosystems that are easily invaded?

10.  What determines the level of primary productivity?  What is the relationship between the levels of factors that affect primary productivity and the rate of primary production?

11.  What determines the rate of decomposition?  What is the relationship between the levels of these factors and the rate of decomposition?

12.  In question 5, we're interested in how various factors affect biodiversity.  Yet, biodiversity may affect any number of environmental/ecological factors.  How does biodiversity affect ecosystems?

13.  What types of pollution affect communities and ecosystems, and how do they affect communities and ecosystems?

14.  How has the environment determined the size and spread of the human population over the past 10,000 years?