BIO360 Exam 1 Key
(Questions are identical in Code 16, but in a different order)

Multiple Choice Questions (2 pts each)

1.  In the scientific process, what is a hypothesis?
A. An experiment
B. An explanation
C. An observation
D. A proven fact

2.  A/an ___________ is made up of one or more ____________.
A. population, communities
B. community, populations
C. population, ecosystems
D. community, ecosystems
E. ecosystem, biomes

3.  There are two important types of information needed to interpret graphics such as scatterplots or bar graphs.  One is a measure of central tendency, such as the mean.  The other is the data’s __________.
A. variation
B. maximum value
C. mode
D. minimum value
E. skew

4.  In Dr. Gilliam’s study of predatory and prey fish, the greatest effects of predators on prey population sizes was caused by:
A. predators killing prey and eating them
B. prey fish increasing their growth rate in response to predators
C. prey fish moving less in response to the presence of predators
D. prey fish decreasing their fecundity

5. In a different experiment, Dr. Gilliam found that when given a choice, prey fish would:
A. only forage for worms in places where there were no predators
B. not forage at all when there were predators present
C. forage in places with more predators only when they were offered more food
D. forage for worms only in places where there were more predators

6. In Southern California forests, coyote increase bird diversity because they:
A. cause medium sized predators of bird chicks, like raccoons, to leave these forests
B. predate birds
C. cause people to keep their housecats indoors
D. A & C
E. None of the above

7. Among fish, the rate of oxygen consumption remains constant
A. for a single species from cool to warm temperatures
B. for a single species in summer and winter months
C. across different species that live in arctic, temperate, or tropical waters
D. None of the above

8. Water has many properties, including that it
A. remains liquid like many other substances found on the Earth’s surface
B. is a universal solvent
C. always increases in density as it cools
D. conducts heat slowly
E. is not dense nor viscous

9. In the feet and legs of gulls that swim or walk in cold water, warm blood leaves the heart and travels in arteries next to cooler blood that is returning to the heart in veins. This example of warm blood positioned where it can warm cooler blood illustrates:
A. countercurrent circulation
B. blood shunting
C. concurrent circulation
D. transpiration
E. osmosis

10. The major difference between CAM and C4 photosynthesis is that:
A. sugars are created in the mesophyll cells in CAM, and in the bundle sheath cells in C4 photosynthesis
B. plants using CAM photosynthesis have no stoma
C. plants using C4 photosynthsis do not use the Calvin Cycle
D. plants using CAM photosynthesis have no water limitation
E. plants using CAM photosynthesis take up carbon dioxide at night

11. An El Nino year differs from a normal year because
A. warm water builds up in the eastern Pacific Ocean, along the South American coast
B. the trade winds weaken or reverse
C. typical upwelling of nutrients in the eastern Pacific Ocean shuts down
D. North America is cooler and wetter, with more storms
E. All of the above

12. Which soil horizon has the lowest amount of decaying organic matter?
A. O
B. A
C. B
D. C
E. E

13. When compared to the conditions an animal can tolerate, the areas where it is actually found refer to the:
A. fundamental niche
B. niche
C. realized niche
D. habitat

14. In a lake, the layer that experiences the greatest change in temperature is called the:
A. epilimnion
B. thermocline
C. hypolimnion
D. benthic zone
E. profundal zone

15. Levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere are
A. 200 parts per million and declining
B. 300 parts per million and stable over time
C. 400 parts per million and rising
D. fluctuating widely over the last three decades, but otherwise stable

16. Ecological effects of carbon dioxide can occur through
A. changes it causes to global temperatures
B. effects on plant productivity, like other nutrient fertilizers
C. effects on chemical structure within plants
D. All of the above

17. Consistent with the predicted effects of global warming, butterfly distributions have moved
A. to lower elevations along mountain gradients
B. in the northern hemisphere, southward toward the equator
C. in the northern hemisphere, northward toward the pole
D. in the southern hemisphere, northward toward the equator

18. Figures 8.14 and 8.15 of your textbook depict changes in bird egg laying and plant flowering dates over time. Consistent with the average for all plants and animals for which these dates have been analyzed, the average date now compared to historical data is
A. 7 days earlier
B. 1 day earlier
C. unchanged
D. 1 day later
E. 1 week later

19. Climate diagrams are scaled on the y-axes such that 10 degrees increase in temperature corresponds to 20 millimeters increase in rainfall. This reflects
A. values that represent common ranges of rainfall and temperature
B. the level of rainfall needed to sustain evapotranspiration given the corresponding temperature
C. that plant flowering is determined by those values
D. the level of temperature and precipitation needed for a plant to live
E. None of the above.

20. Where would you be most likely to find plants that photosynthesize via the CAM photosynthetic pathway?  (oC = degrees Celsius and m = meters)
A. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: mean annual temp. = 27.6oC; annual precipitation = 2.7 m
B. Yuma, Arizona: mean annual temp. = 22.5oC; annual precipitation = 0.09 m
C. Philadelphia, PA: mean annual temp. = 8.5oC; annual precipitation = 1.0 m
D. Pt. Barrow, Alaska: mean annual temp. = -6.7oC; annual precipitation = 0.11 m
E. Any of the above

21. Biomes are defined by their plants because plants
A. have low surface area relative to their volume
B. are usually consumers within foodwebs
C. have similar adaptations in different locations across the globe to deal with similar environmental conditions
D. are small and hard to notice within ecosystems

22. Medium Ground Finches on Daphne Island have displayed what type of selection in response to drought?
A. Directional
B. Disruptive
C. Evocative
D. Stabilizing
E. Frequency-dependent

23. In Medium Ground Finches, evolution over three decades has caused
A. no change from beginning to end in beak size
B. a progressive rise in beak size
C. an initial rise in beak size, followed by a drop to levels found early in the study
D. a progressive decline in beak size
E. a reduction in beak shape

24. The case of the black and white peppered moth showed that people could
A. change the environment to cause evolution toward the darker form
B. change the environment to cause evolution toward the black and white form
C. have no effect on the evolution of the moth
D. A & B

25. A higher value of strength of selection (s) in one genotype of an animal would cause
A. faster evolution in favor of a different genotype with higher fitness
B. slower evolution in favor of a different genotype with higher fitness
C. faster evolution toward the genotype with higher value of s
D. no evolution in this animal

26. European Magpies are birds that typically lay seven eggs per nest. When scientists experimentally added two eggs to each nest, they observed survival of ________ fledglings when compared to the usual nest that starts with seven eggs.
A. fewer
B. the same number of
C. more

27. Kelp bass occupy kelp forests off the coast of California.  They generally do not reproduce until they are 2 years old and produce approximately 150 eggs per reproductive bout.  They reproduce on average 4 times before they die at age 7.  Which of the following statements is true about the kelp bass?
A. Their parity is 2, their maturity is 7, and their fecundity is 150
B. Their parity is 4, their maturity is 2, and their fecundity is 150
C. Their parity is 7, their maturity is 7, and their fecundity is 150
D. Their parity is 150, their maturity is 2, and their fecundity is 4
E. Their parity is 4, their maturity is 150, and their fecundity is 2

28. Environmental conditions can affect rates of development and life histories. In an environment of poorer quality compared to an ideal environment, tadpoles undergo metamorphosis at smaller sizes but when they are older. This response indicates their
A. reaction norm
B. parity
C. fitness
D. senescence

29. Male offspring of red deer are energetically more costly to their mothers, being larger at birth and requiring more food when young. Because of this, sex ratios of newborn deer becomes more biased towards females
A. in the fall, at the beginning of the breeding season
B. at no time
C. in the mid-winter, later in the breeding season
D. at all times

30. In a study of the lifecycle of a pathogenic worm and its host snail and duck, snails were more likely to be infected in
A. shallow water by shallow-water parasites
B. deep water by deep-water parasites
C. shallow water (by any parasite) than in deep water
D. All of the above


Short Answer or Short Essay Questions

31a.  In the diagrams below, indicate the area under the curve that would be favored by natural selection for the three types of selection listed:  (6 pts)
(Left graphic) Shade the interior portion under the curve where the curve peaks.
(Middle graphic) Shade either the left or right area of the graphic near either end of the curve
(Right graphic) Shade both the left and right area of the graphic near either end of the curve


31b. (2 pts) Provide one example of one of the types of selection described in 31a.

There were many acceptable answers, for example:
Direction selection -- medium ground finch bill size; or cliff swallow body size
Stabilizing selection -- human birth weight
Disruptive selection -- bill size in African finches

32a.  (2 pts) Define what is meant by a tradeoff in ecology, evolution, or behavior.

Because resources are limited or because of physiological constraint, any allocation ot improved function imposes a cost of poorer function in other attributes of an organism.

b.  (6 pts) Give one example of a tradeoff in:

1.  behavioral decisions by prey

 (need 1 answer)
-Best places to forage may be most dangerous
-Best times to forage may be most danderous
-Time allocated to feeding is time not spent reproducing, growing

2.  adaptation of photosynthetic pathways

 (need 1 answer)
-C3 photosynthesis has benefit of more cells involved in CO2 uptake and photosynthesis, but CO2 uptake is inefficient leading to more rapid water loss
-C4 photosynthesis has benefit of more efficient CO2 uptake, but fewer cells are involved in photosynthesis

3.  evolution of life histories

 (need 1 answer)
-early reproduction leads to lower adult survival
-higher fecundity leads to lower adult survival


33a. (4 pts) What is the difference between a rain shadow and a Hadley cell?
A rain shadow refers to the change in precipitation, following the direction of winds, increasing as elevation rises and decreasing on the other side as elevation falls.  A Hadley cell refers to global patterns, with rainfall increasing as air is warmed and rises and then cools near the equator, and then decreasing as it falls, warms, and absorbs moisture at 30 degrees latitude.

b. (2 pts) What is similar about these two concepts in terms of the pattern they are trying to explain?
They both explain patterns of precipitation as air rises, cools, and condenses, and then elsewhere falls, warms, and absorbs moisture.

34. Based on the climate diagram given here, 1) label the two y-axes, and draw an arrow from the label to the line that it describes (4 points); and 2) indicate the most likely biome and the dominant vegetation type found there (4 points).

Left axis should be labeled Temperature, and should point to the lower curve
Right axis should be labeled Precipitation, and should point to the upper curve

Biome:  Temperate grassland or cold desert.  (If you reversed the curves above, then the only consistent answer would be "no biome", as precipitation would never be high enough to support plant growth.

 35. Consider a bird traveling from its nest to one of two different food sources for a time represented by the distance from the ‘X’ to each curve.  If the bird is foraging optimally, for which location, A or B, will it acquire more food before returning to the nest (1 pt).  Show how you know (3 pts).

Answer is A.  You can determine this by drawing lines from the X tangent to the curves.  The point of the tangent is higher on the y-axis for curve A.


36. (4 pts) List four categories of defenses prey animals have evolved to avoid being eaten by their predators. Provide one example from the Deep Ocean.
a. Toxins/chemicals/warnings
b. Size
c. Armor
d. Speed/other behaviors
-- Crypsis
-- Mimicry

Examples include: crypticity in fish that can change color to match light wavelength penetrating from the surface
(other answers possible.)

37. (4 pts) What are the four characteristics of Evolution by Natural Selection according to Darwin’s theory.
a. variability within traits
b. heritability of traits
c. more offspring produced than can survive
d. survival and reproduction are not random, those with most favorable variations are naturally selected.