BIO360 Exam 1 Key
(Questions are identical in Code 16, but in a different order)

Multiple Choice Questions (2 pts each)

1.  In the scientific process, what is a hypothesis?
A. An experiment
B. An explanation
C. An observation
D. A proven fact

2.  An ecological ___________ is made up of one or more ____________.
A. population, communities
B. population, ecosystems
C. community, ecosystems
D. ecosystem, communities
E. ecosystem, biomes

3. A dynamic steady state in ecology (Fig 1.4) refers to:
A. the balance within organisms between food intake and waste or energy lost
B. the balance in populations between births and deaths
C. the balance in communities between colonization and extinction
D. the balance in ecosystems between energy entering and leaving
E. all of the above

4.  There are two important types of information needed to interpret graphics such as scatterplots or bar graphs.  One is a measure of central tendency, such as the mean.  The other is the dataís __________.
A. variation
B. maximum value
C. mode
D. minimum value
E. skew

5.  When given a choice and compared to an environment with low quantities of predators and food, small stream chubs (prey fish) were willing to enter stream sections with
A. the same quantity of food and twice the number of predators
B. twice the quantity of food and predators
C. twice the quantity of predators and three times the quantity of food
D. all of the above

6. Animals searching for food with longer (compared to shorter) travel times to arrive at their food spend ________ time
A. more
B. the same amount
C. less
D. none of the above

7. Frogs exposed to a predator (dragonfly nymphs) that was caged and could not eat them had
A. faster movement rates
B. higher growth rates
C. increased fecundity
D. lower amount of time spent active

8. A unique adaptation of sharks for dealing with water loss in marine environments is to retain
A. urea
B. ammonia
C. sodium
D. chloride

9. In the feet and legs of gulls that swim or walk in cold water, warm blood leaves the heart and travels in arteries next to cooler blood that is returning to the heart in veins. This example of warm blood positioned where it can warm cooler blood illustrates:
A. countercurrent circulation
B. blood shunting
C. concurrent circulation
D. transpiration
E. osmosis

10. The amount of water lost by plants through transpiration is ________ the amount of CO2 gained.
A. 2 times
B. 5 times
C. 10 times
D. 500 times
E. 5 million times

11. As in other areas of ecology and evolution, types of photosynthesis represent a tradeoff.  For example, the costs and benefits of C3 photosynthesis relative to C4 are:
A. cost = more rapid water loss; benefit = more cells engaged in photosynthesis
B. cost = more cells engaged in photosynthesis; benefit = more rapid water loss
C. cost = carbohydrates created only at night; benefit = less rapid water loss
D. cost = more cells engaged in photosynthesis; benefit = carbon uptake at night & less transpiration

12. One type of model used to predict the new distribution of a plant or animal when it is introduced to a new climate or when climate changes is called a:
A. population model
B. niche model
C. dynamic model
D. distribution model

13. According to the River Continuum Concept, stream headwaters have
A. colder temperatures
B. higher oxygen
C. plant production that originates outside the stream
D. more shredding insects
E. all of the above

14. In a lake, the layer that experiences the greatest change in temperature is called the:
A. epilimnion
B. thermocline
C. hypolimnion
D. benthic zone
E. profundal zone

15.  In northern lakes, the process of freezing and thawing has the effect of
A. killing animals
B. killing plants
C. freezing the benthic zone
D. cycling nutrients from top to bottom
E. none of the above

16. Levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere are
A. 200 parts per million and declining
B. 300 parts per million and stable over time
C. 400 parts per million and rising
D. fluctuating widely over the last three decades, but otherwise stable

17. In 2015, the global temperature was:
A. the coolest recorded in the past century
B. stable relative to measurements made in the past decade
C. the warmest recorded in the past decade (but not in the past century)
D. the warmest recorded in the past century
E. one of a variety of temperatures (measured annually), such that no trend can be determined

18.Your answer to the previous question was influenced by what weather event?
A. Hadley Cells
B. El NiŮo
C. Rain Shadows
D. California Wildfires
E. Brazilian Drought

19. Research on the ecological impacts of climate change
A. shows effects of climate change only on the species-level.
B. shows effects of climate change only on certain trophic levels.
C. has recently shown effects of climate change on interactions between species at community-wide scales.
D. has recently shown effects of climate change only on communities.

20. Figures 8.14 and 8.15 of your textbook depict changes in bird egg laying and plant flowering dates over time. Consistent with the average for all plants and animals analyzed, the average date of laying and flowering now, when compared to historical data, is
A. 7 days earlier
B. 1 day earlier
C. unchanged
D. 1 day later
E. 1 week later

21. Climate diagrams are scaled on the y-axes such that 10 degrees increase in temperature corresponds to 20 millimeters increase in rainfall. This reflects
A. values that represent common ranges of rainfall and temperature
B. the level of rainfall needed to sustain evapotranspiration given the corresponding temperature
C. that plant flowering is determined by those values
D. the level of temperature and precipitation needed for a plant to live
E. None of the above.

22. Where would you be most likely to find plants that photosynthesize via the CAM photosynthetic pathway?  (oC = degrees Celsius and m = meters)
A. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: mean annual temp. = 27.6oC; annual precipitation = 2.7 m
B. Yuma, Arizona: mean annual temp. = 22.5oC; annual precipitation = 0.09 m
C. Philadelphia, PA: mean annual temp. = 8.5oC; annual precipitation = 1.0 m
D. Pt. Barrow, Alaska: mean annual temp. = -6.7oC; annual precipitation = 0.11 m
E. Any of the above

23. Biomes are defined by their plants because plants
A. have low surface area relative to their volume
B. are usually consumers within foodwebs
C. have similar adaptations in different locations across the globe to deal with similar environmental conditions
D. are small and hard to notice within ecosystems

24. Epiphytic plants come from many different plant groups and grow on tree branches and trunks. What limit are they trying to overcome in tropical forest?
A. water
B. nutrients
C. light
D. herbivory
E. all of the above

25. After drought, the food of one of Darwinís finches became harder. In response, bill size:
A. became larger, and has remained that way for three decades
B. became smaller, and has remained that way for two decades
C. remained the same size over time
D. became larger, but then became smaller once the environment returned to its typical condition

26. Kettlewell used observations and experiments to test the effects of environmental change caused by industrialization on the black and white peppered moth. Compared to experiments, observational studies show _______ predation
A. higher
B. lower
C. the same level of
D. variable rates of

27. Snowshoe hares change coat color from summer (brown) to winter (white). They now experience
A. decreased survival because white hares now stand out against brown and green
B. decreased survival because brown hares now stand out against white
C. increased survival because longer summers have more food for hares
D. increased population growth rate because hares have more offspring when temperatures warm

28. European Magpies are birds that typically lay seven eggs per nest. When scientists experimentally added two eggs to each nest, they observed survival of ________ fledglings when compared to the typical nest that starts with seven eggs.
A. fewer
B. the same number of
C. more

29. Kelp bass occupy kelp forests off the coast of California.  They generally do not reproduce until they are 2 years old and produce approximately 150 eggs per reproductive bout.  They reproduce on average 4 times before they die at age 7.  Which of the following statements is true about the kelp bass?
A. Their parity is 2, their maturity is 7, and their fecundity is 150
B. Their parity is 4, their maturity is 2, and their fecundity is 150
C. Their parity is 7, their maturity is 7, and their fecundity is 150
D. Their parity is 150, their maturity is 2, and their fecundity is 4
E. Their parity is 4, their maturity is 150, and their fecundity is 2

30. Compared to when their mothers survive, male killer whales
A. have the same rate of survival as long as their mothers donít die in the first year after birth
B. have lower survival if their mothers die before they are age 15
C. As long as they are older than 20, they have higher survival after their mothers die because they do not have to compete for food
D. have lower survival if their mothers die before they are age 35
E. B&D


Short Answer or Short Essay Questions

31a. In the diagrams below, indicate the area under the curve that would be favored by natural selection for the three types of selection listed:  (6 pts)
Stabilizing selection: area in the center of the histogram
Directional selection: area to either tail (left or right) of the histogram
Destabilizing (Distruptive) selection: area on both tails (left and right) of the histogram

31b. (2 pts) Provide one example of one type of selection described in 31a.
(many examples possible)
Stabilizing selection: human birth weight
Directional selection: swallow mass after rainstorm; finch beak length after drought
Destabilizing (Distruptive) selection: finch beak shape in response to different sized grass seeds

31c. (2 pts) Provide one example of frequency-dependent selection
(other examples possible)
sex ratio
frequency of mouth direction in scale-eating fish

32a. (2 pts) Define what is meant by a tradeoff in ecology, evolution, or behavior.
Resources are limited, and improving one characteristic usually means diverting energy from another. It is not possible to maximize all traits.  The combination of traits must be optimized to overcome the problem of allocation

32b. (6 pts) Give one example of a tradeoff in:

1. behavioral decisions by prey
Consume where there are more resources or more predators

2. adaptation of photosynthetic pathways
Safest places not necessarily the places with highest energetic return
Safest times for foraging not necessarily times with the highest energetic return
Time spent foraging detracts from time spent hiding or mating

3. evolution of life histories
Negative relationship between number of offspring and adult survival
Positive relationship between age of maturity and survival past maturity
Plant establishment versus survival

33. (3 pts) Amphibians migrate to temporary ponds in winter to breed.  Why?
Temporary ponds lack fish predators.  Invertebrate food is also very abundant in these habitats

34. (6 pts) List three adaptations exhibited by animal fur or feathers for snow and cold

-- Double-layered coats
-- Fur/feathers change from white in winter to brown in summer
-- Clear fur allows sunlight to heat skin
-- Fur/feather on feet prevent sinking in snow and lower heat loss

35.  Based on the climate diagram below, 1) label the two y-axes, and draw an arrow from the label to the line that it describes (4 points); and 2) indicate the most likely biome and the dominant vegetation type found there (2 points).
Left axis and line that has a bump in the middle is Temperature
Right axis and line that rises on each end is Precipitation

Biome is either Desert or Woodland/shrubland
36. (4 pts) What are the four characteristics of evolution by natural selection according to Darwinís theory.

a. Variation in traits
b. Heritability of traits
c. Not all organisms that are produced can survive
d. The individuals that are best adapted to their environment will survive and reproduce

37. (3 pts) The carbon cycle can be thought of in terms of pools (where it is found in abundance) and flows (between those pools).

a. name two pools
Atmosphere, ecosystems, ocean, fossil fuels

b. name two flows
Atmosphere to ecosystems via uptake by plants and photosyntesis
Ecosystems to atmosphere via respiration
Exchange with oceans

c. how are humans changing flows?
Burning fossil fuels