Key Exam 1
Note that number is to Exam Code 1

Multiple Choice Questions (2 pts each)
1. In the scientific process, what is a hypothesis?
A. An experiment
B. An explanation
C. An observation
D. A proven fact

2. An ecological ___________ is made up of one or more ____________.
A. community, populations
B. population, ecosystems
C. community, ecosystems
D. population, communities
E. ecosystem, biomes

3. For _____________ a dynamic steady state is maintained by inputs of ___________ and outputs of ____________.
A. individuals; food; energy expended
B. populations; births; deaths
C. communities; colonization; extinction
D. ecosystems; solar energy and matter; energy and matter
E. all of the above

4. There are two important types of information needed to interpret graphics such as scatterplots or bar graphs. One is a measure of central tendency, such as the mean.  The other is the data’s __________.
A. variation
B. maximum value
C. mode
D. minimum value
E. skew

5. Dr. Gilliam found that when given a choice, prey fish:
A. only foraged for worms in places where there were no predators
B. do not forage at all when there were predators present anywhere
C. forage in places with more predators only when they were offered more food
D. forage for worms only in places where there were more predators

6. The Landscape of Fear refers to non-lethal effects of the presence of predators that include:
A. Higher growth rates
B. Lower fecundity
C. Higher activity
D. None of the above

7. Animals searching optimally for food should forage
A. for the longest time possible
B. for the shortest time possible
C. for the time that maintains the highest rate of food acquisition
D. for the time that maintains the lowest rate of food acquisition

8. In the feet and legs of gulls that swim or walk in cold water, warm blood leaves the heart and travels in arteries next to cooler blood that is returning to the heart in veins. This example of warm blood positioned where it can warm cooler blood illustrates:
A. countercurrent circulation
B. blood shunting
C. concurrent circulation
D. transpiration
E. osmosis

9. Types of photosynthesis represent a tradeoff.  For example, the costs and benefits of C3 photosynthesis relative to C4 are:
A. cost = more rapid water loss; benefit = more cells engaged in photosynthesis
B. cost = more cells engaged in photosynthesis; benefit = more rapid water loss
C. cost = carbohydrates created only at night; benefit = less rapid water loss
D. cost = more cells engaged in photosynthesis; benefit = carbon uptake at night & less transpiration

10. Through a plant’s stomate:
A. 500 times more water is transpired than CO2 is acquired
B. 500 times more CO2 is acquired than water is transpired
C. CO2 acquisition is roughly balance with water loss via transpiration
D. water and CO2 are acquired

11. Plant adaptations to prevent water loss in dry environments include:
A. Tiny, pliable leaves
B. Increased leaf area
C. Increased sun exposure
D. No spines or hairs
E. None of the above

12. This soil horizon is characterized by organic matter, especially plant litter, at various stages of decomposition.
A. A
B. B
C. C
D. O

13. In the state of Missouri, the realized niche of Fremont’s Leather Flower included
A. Every location in the entire state
B. Every location across a region of the state (northeast, southwest, etc)
C. Every location in every open forest glade
D. In many of the specific locations that have the exact physical conditions (fundamental niche) it needs
E. All of the above.

14. According to the River Continuum concept, headwaters in the Smokey Mountains should:
A. gain primary production from algae living within the stream
B. have an insect community with many shredders
C. have fish that tolerate warm, turbid water
D. All of the above.

15. Levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere are
A. 200 parts per million and declining
B. 300 parts per million and stable over time
C. 400 parts per million and rising
D. fluctuating widely over the last three decades, but otherwise stable

16. In 2016, the global temperature was:
A. the coolest recorded in the past decade
B. stable relative to measurements made in the past decade
C. the warmest recorded in the past decade (but not in the past century)
D. the warmest recorded in the past century
E. one of a variety of temperatures (measured annually), such that no trend can be determined

17. Across all plants and animals for which the timing has been measured, breeding, flowering, or emergence in the spring has shifted on average over the past century:
A. 50 days later
B. 5 days later
C. 0 days
D. 5 days earlier
E. 50 days earlier

18. Research on the ecological impacts of climate change
A. shows effects of climate change only on the species-level.
B. shows effects of climate change only on certain trophic levels.
C. has recently shown effects of climate change on interactions between species at community-wide scales.
D. has recently shown effects of climate change only on communities.

19. A Hadley Cell is characterized by:
A. Cool air rising at the equator
B. Air absorbing moisture at the equator
C. Cool air descending at the Tropic of Cancer (25-30 degrees North Latitude)
D. Rain falling at the Tropic of Cancer
E. The heaviest rain falling at 60 degrees North Latitude

20. Climate diagrams are scaled on the y-axes such that 10 degrees increase in temperature corresponds to 20 millimeters increase in rainfall. This reflects
A. values that represent common ranges of rainfall and temperature
B. the level of rainfall needed to sustain evapotranspiration given the corresponding temperature
C. that plant flowering is determined by those values
D. the level of temperature and precipitation needed for a plant to live
E. None of the above.

21. Where would you be most likely to find plants that photosynthesize via the CAM photosynthetic pathway?  (oC = degrees Celsius and m = meters)
A. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: mean annual temp. = 27.6oC; annual precipitation = 2.7 m
B. Yuma, Arizona: mean annual temp. = 22.5oC; annual precipitation = 0.09 m
C. Philadelphia, PA: mean annual temp. = 8.5oC; annual precipitation = 1.0 m
D. Pt. Barrow, Alaska: mean annual temp. = -6.7oC; annual precipitation = 0.11 m
E. Any of the above

22. Evolution:
A. acts on populations, but consequences are for individuals
B. acts on genotypes, but changes are of phenotypes
C. is backward looking, not forward looking
D. is random and progressive
E. None of the above.

23. Before the industrial revolution, the most common form of the pepper moth was
A. mainly dark brown/black
B. mainly white with small brown/black spots
C. mainly grey (a hybrid of color-forms)
D. an equal proportion of all color forms

24. Selection can increase genetic diversity through which mechanisms?
A. Frequency-dependent selection
B. Heterozygote advantage
C. Disruptive selection
D. Recombination as response to infection
E. All of the above

25. Kelp bass occupy kelp forests off the coast of California.  They generally do not reproduce until they are 2 years old and produce approximately 150 eggs per reproductive bout.  They reproduce on average 4 times before they die at age 7.  Which of the following statements is true about the kelp bass?
A. Their parity is 2, their maturity is 7, and their fecundity is 150
B. Their parity is 4, their maturity is 2, and their fecundity is 150
C. Their parity is 7, their maturity is 7, and their fecundity is 150
D. Their parity is 150, their maturity is 2, and their fecundity is 4
E. Their parity is 4, their maturity is 150, and their fecundity is 2

26. Male killer whales
A. have the same rate of survival as long as their mothers don’t die in the first year after birth
B. have lower survival if their mothers die before they are age 15
C. As long as they are older than 20, they have higher survival after their mothers die because they do not have to compete for food
D. have lower survival if their mothers die before they are age 35
E. B&D

27. European Magpies are birds that typically lay seven eggs per nest. When scientists experimentally added two eggs to each nest, they observed survival of ________ fledglings when compared to the typical nest that has seven eggs.
A. fewer
B. the same number of
C. more

28. In a study of the lifecycle of a pathogenic worm and its host snail and duck, snails were asexual
A. everywhere
B. in deep water
C. in shallow water
D. nowhere

29. Sexually selected traits in males:
A. are unrelated to their ability to increase the mothers fecundity or offspring survival
B. must carry a cost
C. must not be evident, either to females or to predators
D. are limited to their colors or size, and are not found in their behaviors
E. All of the above.

30. “The fitness of an individual plus the fitness of its relatives” defines:
A. the coefficient of relatedness
B. cooperation
C. eusociality
D. inclusive fitness
E. reproductive dominance
Short Answer or Short Essay Questions

31a. In the diagrams below, shade inthe area under the curve that would be favored by natural selection for the three types of selection listed:  (6 pts)
-Stabilizing selection, shade the middle region
-Directional selection, shade one "tail" or the other
-Disruptive selection, shade both "tails"

31b. (2 pts) Provide one example of directional selection.
Many examples possible.  Bill depth in Medium ground finch in response to drought; Swallowtail size in response to cold are two that we discussed

31c. (2 pts) Provide one example of frequency-dependent selection
Mouth direction in scale eating fish

32a. (2 pts) Define what is meant by a tradeoff in ecology, evolution, or behavior.
Resources are limited, and improving one characteristic usually means diverting energy from another. It is not possible to maximize all traits.  The combination of traits must be optimized to overcome the problem of allocation

32b. (6 pts) Give one example of a tradeoff in: (need one each)
1. behavioral decisions by prey
Consume where there are more resources or more predators

2. adaptation of photosynthetic pathways
Safest places not necessarily the places with highest energetic return
Safest times for foraging not necessarily times with the highest energetic return
Time spent foraging detracts from time spent hiding or mating

3. evolution of life histories
Negative relationship between number of offspring and adult survival
Positive relationship between age of maturity and survival past maturity
Plant establishment versus survival

33. (3 pts) Amphibians migrate to temporary ponds in winter to breed.  Why?
Temporary ponds lack fish predators.  Invertebrate food is also very abundant in these habitats

34. (6 pts) List three adaptations exhibited by animal fur or feathers for snow and cold
-- Double-layered coats
-- Fur/feathers change from white in winter to brown in summer
-- Clear fur allows sunlight to heat skin
-- Fur/feather on feet prevent sinking in snow and lower heat loss

35.  Based on the climate diagram given here, 1) label the two y-axes, and draw an arrow from the label to the line that it describes (4 points); and 2) indicate the most likely biome and the dominant vegetation type found there (2 points).
 Left axis and line that has a bump in the middle is Temperature
Right axis and line that rises on each end is Precipitation

Temperate Grassland

36. (3 points) List three broad categories of physical characteristics of the deep ocean that are divergent from those found on land. These affect the adaptations of animals and plants, including sources of primary production.
a. large volume   
b. low/no light
c. High pressure

37. (4 points) Describe two characteristics of species that represent the extreme ends (slow vs. fast) of the “slow-fast continuum” described by life history theory.

a. Two characteristics of species that represent the “slow” end of the spectrum:
1.    short lifespan
2.    rapid development
early maturity
high fecundity
low parental investment

b. Two characteristics of species that represent the “fast” end of the spectrum:
1.    long lifespan
2.    slow development
late maturity
low fecundity
high parental investment