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H. Christopher Frey

Research Interests

Teaching

Publications

Current and Recent Projects

Past Projects

Computer Laboratory

Frey Research Group

Professional Activities

Real-World Vehicle Emissions

Past Externally-Sponsored Research Projects


 

      Title:                            Conceptual Design and Economic Evaluation of the Fluidized Bed Copper Oxide Process                                                     

Investigators:               H. Christopher Frey, Principal Investigator (most of the work was performed while H.C. Frey was on the research faculty at Carnegie Mellon.  Final report completed at NCSU).

Granting Agency:        U.S. Department of Energy (via A.E. Roberts and Associates, Inc.)

Dates:                          1992-1993

Brief Description:        Developed a probabilistic performance, emissions, and cost model of the fluidized bed copper oxide process for controlling SO2 and NOx emissions from coal-fired power plants. 

 

      Title:                            Study of Advanced Electric Power Generation and End-Use Technologies for Transfer to Developing Countries                  

Investigators:               H. Christopher Frey, Principal Investigator and Project Director, Edward S. Rubin and Paul Fischbeck, Carnegie Mellon; Robert Lempert and Gwen Farnsworth, RAND Corporation; David Acheson, Atlantic Council of the United States (work performed while H.C. Frey was on research faculty at Carnegie Mellon.  Final report completed while at NCSU).

Granting Agency:        Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

Dates:                          1992-1994

Brief Description:        Developed a framework for prioritizing Federal research, development and demonstration priorities for electric energy production and end-use technologies. 

 

      Title:                            Development and Application of Optimal Design Capability for Coal Gasification Systems                                        

Investigators:               H. Christopher Frey, Principal Investigator

Granting Agency:        U.S. Department of Energy (via Carnegie Mellon University)

Dates:                          1994-1995

Brief Description:        Developed probabilistic process simulation models of the Externally Fired Combined Cycle (EFCC), Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR), and Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP).

 

      Title:                            Probabilistic Evaluation of Technological, Environmental, and Economic Factors in Mobile Source Air Pollution        

Investigators:               H. Christopher Frey, Principal Investigator; Co-investigators include S. Ranji Ranjithan and E. Downey Brill, Jr.

Granting Agency:        Center for Transportation and the Environment

Dates:                          1994-1997

Brief Description:        Developed probabilistic estimates of vehicle emissions. 

 

      Title:                            A Plan for Development of Advanced Transportation Systems in the Research Triangle Region                                          

Investigators:               Nagui M. Rouphail, Principal Investigator.  Co-investigators include:  J.R. Stone, J.E. Hummer, J.W. Baugh, and H.C. Frey

Granting Agency:        North Carolina Department of Transportation

Dates:                          1994-1995

Brief Description:        Supported an air quality component regarding evaluation of the effects of traffic management strategies for the Research Triangle area.

 

      Title:                            Engineering-Economic Modeling of Process Technologies         

Investigators:               H. Christopher Frey, task director [this project was a special task incorporated into a project managed by S. Ranji Ranjithan and E. Downey Brill, Jr.]

Granting Agency:        MCNC

Dates:                          1994-1995

Brief Description:        Developed new performance and cost models of combustion-based NOx controls for coal-fired power plants. 

 

      Title:                            Remote Sensing of Mobile Source Air Pollution 

Investigators:               H. Christopher Frey, Principal Investigator

Granting Agency:        North Carolina Department of Transportation

Dates:                          1995-1996

Brief Description:        Used remote sensing technology to obtain on-road emissions data for school and transit buses these vehicles.

 

      Title:                            Quantitative Analysis of Variability and Uncertainty in Acid Rain Assessments          

Investigators:               H. Christopher Frey, Principal Investigator

Granting Agency:        U.S. Department of Energy

Dates:                          1995-1997

Brief Description:        Demonstrated approaches for dealing with variability and uncertainty in environmental and technology assessment models; developed performance, emissions, and cost models of power plant NOx controls.

 

      Title:                            ITS Integration of Real Time Emissions Data and Traffic Management Systems          

Investigators:               Nagui M. Rouphail, Principal Investigator; H. Christopher Frey, Co-Principal Investigator.

Granting Agency:        Transportation Research Board (via National Institute for Statistical Sciences), Center for Transportation and the Environment, and North Carolina State University

Dates:                          1997-1999

Brief Description:        On-road emissions measured using remote sensing and traffic data measured using a video-based area-wide detector were used to develop conceptual traffic-based models of emissions. 

 

      Title:                            Air Quality Modeling Uncertainty Analysis

Investigators:               H. Christopher Frey, Principal Investigator

Granting Agency:        Hanna Consultants

Dates:                          1997-1999

Brief Description:        Conducted an expert elicitation for the purpose of quantifying uncertainties in inputs to the UAM-V air quality model.

 

      Title:                            NSF CAREER Award: New Methods for Systems Analysis of Environmental Technologies                                

Investigators:               H. Christopher Frey, Principal Investigator

Granting Agency:        National Science Foundation

Dates:                          June 1997- May 2003

Brief Description:        Developed process engineering models for performance, emissions, and cost of advanced coal-based power generation systems in combination with development and application for simulation and optimization methods that account for variability and uncertainty.  The educational component included the development of modular instructional materials in air pollution control, air quality engineering, systems engineering, and related topics.

 

      Title:                            Analysis of Variability and Uncertainty in Emission Estimation

Investigators:               H. Christopher Frey, Principal Investigator

Granting Agency:        U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Dates:                          1998-2001

Brief Description:        A methodology for quantification of variability and uncertainty was developed and applied to estimation of emissions from selected sources.

 

      Title:                            New Methods for Assessment of Pollution Prevention Technologies

Investigators:               H. Christopher Frey and Morton A. Barlaz, Co-Principal Investigators

Granting Agency:        National Science Foundation and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Dates:                          October 1998- September 2003

Brief Description:        The objectives of this research are to:  (1) develop novel assessment methodologies for evaluation of the risks and potential pay-offs of new technologies that avoid pollutant production;  (2) demonstrate the methodology via a detailed case study of one promising new pollution prevention technology; and (3) utilize a tiered approach including process simulation and design optimization, probabilistic analysis, life cycle analysis, and assessment of selected regional environmental impacts to provide insights regarding the risks and pay-offs of the pollution prevention approach, both at a "micro" process-level and at a "macro" regional environmental level.  This project will focus on pollution prevention in power generation, waste management, and selected aspects of related industries using waste gasification as an example.

 

      Title:                            Probabilistic Modeling of Variability and Uncertainty in Urban Air Toxics Emissions

Investigators:               H. Christopher Frey, Principal Investigator (sole investigator)

Granting Agency:        U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Dates:                          October 1998- March 2004

Brief Description:        The objectives of this research are: (1) to develop and refine methods for quantification of variability and uncertainty in estimating emissions of urban air toxics; (2) to develop and refine methods for identifying key sources of variability and uncertainty in assessments of urban air toxic emissions and exposures; (3) to develop probabilistic process engineering models for making realistic estimates of emissions of, and the effects of control measures for, urban air toxics; (4) to demonstrate the methods via a detailed case study of urban air toxics emissions and exposures; and (5) to characterize the benefits of the methods with respect to environmental and research management.

 

      Title:                            Development and Demonstration of a Methodology for Characterizing and Managing Uncertainties in Emission Inventories

Investigators:               H. Christopher Frey, Principal Investigator (with four co-investigators)

Granting Agency:        U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Dates:                          January 1999-January 2003

Brief Description:       Developed methods and case studies for probababilistic estimates of uncertainty in emissions for ozone precursors for a number of source categories, and propagated uncertainty in an emission inventory through an air quality model to demonstrate air quality management benefits of the approach. 

 

      Title:                            Emissions Reduction Through Better Traffic Management

Investigators:               H. Christopher Frey and Nagui M. Rouphail, Co-Principal Investigators.  Collaborators include Alan Karr of the National Institute of Statistical Sciencies, which is funding its own participation.

Granting Agency:        NC Department of Transportation

Dates:                          April 1999- June 2001

Brief Description:       Measured real-world on-road vehicle emissions using a portable instrument.  Compared emissions on selected corridors before and after a change in signal timing and coordination to assess real world traffic flow and air pollution benefits of a traffic control measure.  Developed protocols for data collection and modal estimates of emissions.

 

      Title:                            Services for Risk Assessment Development

Investigators:               H. Christopher Frey

Granting Agency:        United States Department of Agriculture

Dates:                          October 1999 - September 2000

Brief Description:       Provided peer review on selected USDA reports. 

 

        Title:                           Identification and Application of Methods for Sensitivity Analysis of Complex Food Safety Process Risk Models

Investigators:               H. Christopher Frey

Granting Agency:        United States Department of Agriculture

Dates:                          October 2000 – January 2004.

Brief Description:       Sensitivity analyses of risk models can help identify the most significant exposure or risk factors, aid in developing priorities for risk mitigation, aid in identifying the importance of uncertainties in the model for the purpose of prioritizing additional data collection or research, play an important role in verification and validation of a model, and enable insight into the robustness of model results when making decisions. Sensitivity analysis can also aid in identify the most sensitive or important decision variables, which some may refer to as "control points".  This project focuses on identification and application of methods for sensitivity analysis of complex food safety risk models. 

 

        Title:                           Development of a Module for Statistical Analysis of Variability and Uncertainty

Investigators:               H. Christopher Frey

Granting Agency:        United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development

Dates:                          August 2001 – January 2002.

Brief Description:       Developed the “AuvTool” stand-alone Windows-based software tool for quantification of variability and uncertainty in environmental data.

 

        Title:                           Recommend Strategy for On-Board Emissions Data Analysis and Collection for New Generation Model

Investigators:               H. Christopher Frey

Granting Agency:        United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Transportation and Air Quality

Dates:                          October 2001 – January 2002.

Brief Description:       Recommended a conceptual modeling approach for a national vehicle emissions model based upon availability of second-by-second on-board measurements of vehicle activity and emissions. 

 

        Title:                           Recoding and Uncertainty Analysis of the SHEDS/Pesticides Model

Investigators:               H. Christopher Frey

Granting Agency:        United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development

Dates:                          May 2002 – July 2003.

Brief Description:       Recoded the existing Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation (SHEDS) Pesticides (SHEDS/P) model from its existing SAS implementation into C++ and incorporated new algorithms for quantification of variability and uncertainty in model inputs and propagation of variability and uncertainty to model outputs.   

 

      Title:                            Methodology for Developing Modal Emission Rates for EPA's Multi-Scale Motor Vehicle & Equipment Emission System (MOVES)          

Investigators:               H. Christopher Frey

Granting Agency:        United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Transportation and Air Quality

Dates:                          May 2002 – August 2002.

Brief Description:       The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate an analytical approach for estimating vehicle exhaust modal emission rates and distributions for the Multi-Scale Motor Vehicle & Equipment Emission System (MOVES). 

 

      Title:                            Uncertainty Analysis for the 1996 National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment         

Investigators:               H. Christopher Frey

Granting Agency:        United States Environmental Protection Agency (via MCNC)

Dates:                          January 2003 – March 2004

Brief Description:       Quantified uncertainty in the 1996 National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) based upon benzene, formaldehyde, and chromium and the Houston geographic area. 

 

      Title:                            Operational Evaluation of Emissions and Fuel Use of B20 vs. Diesel Vehicles 

Investigators:               H. Christopher Frey and Nagui M. Rouphail

Granting Agency:        North Carolina Department of Transportation

Dates:                          October 2003 to December 2004.

Brief Description:       This project involves design and implementation of a field data collection study on diesel vehicles to measure second-by-second emissions of NOx, Particulate Matter, CO, and CO2, fuel use, engine data, and vehicle activity (e.g., speed, location) data using an on-board portable instrument.  Benchmark modal emission rates will enable comparison of B20 and conventional diesel fuel, estimation of emission factors, and identification of opportunities to reduce emissions and fuel use through improved vehicle operation.  Strategic recommendations will be made regarding biodiesel fuel, air quality management, energy management, and improved operation.

 

 

      Title:                            NARSTO Emission Inventory Assessment         

Investigators:               H. Christopher Frey

Granting Agency:        California Air Resources Board

Dates:                          March 2004 to June 2004

Brief Description:       The objective of this project is to undertake the first phase of development of a multi-national emission inventory assessment document, including participation of NARSTO and leading experts.  The three major objectives of this work are to:  (1) promote efficient and effective use of current inventories; (2) set the stage for improving future emission inventories; and (3) establish a roadmap for future inventories. 

 

 

      Title:                            Review and Recommendation of Methods for Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis for the SHEDS Models                     

Investigators:               H. Christopher Frey

Granting Agency:        U.S. Environmental Protection Agency via ManTech, Inc.

Dates:                          March 2004 to June 2005

Brief Description:       The objectives of this project are to:  (1) conduct a comprehensive review of available statistical methods for conducting sensitivity analysis and uncertainty analysis in probabilistic models; and (2) recommend a standardized methodology for conducting sensitivity and uncertainty analysis in probabilistic models.   The proposed work includes review and recommendation of sensitivity and uncertainty analysis methods relevant to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation (SHEDS) models. 

 

 

      Title:                            NARSTO Emission Inventory Assessment         

Investigators:               H. Christopher Frey

Granting Agency:        National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

Dates:                          June 2004 to June 2005

Brief Description:       The objective of this project is to undertake the first phase of development of a multi-national emission inventory assessment document, including participation of NARSTO and leading experts.  The three major objectives of this work are to:  (1) promote efficient and effective use of current inventories; (2) set the stage for improving future emission inventories; and (3) establish a roadmap for future inventories. 

 

 

      Title:                            Measurement and Analysis of Diesel-Fueled Passenger Vehicle Emissions       

Investigators:               H. Christopher Frey

Granting Agency:        Imperial College (London, England) Consultants

Dates:                          February 2005 to May 2005

Brief Description:       The objective of this study is to measure and analyze emissions for European diesel-fueled passenger vehicles.  Imperial College has developed a portable emissions measurement system tailored to European vehicles.  However, the available system does not have the capability to measure particulate matter (PM).  In contrast, NCSU has a portable system that is capable of measuring PM concentrations.  Thus, Imperial College and NCSU will collaborate by combining their measurement methods to fill the data gaps and will perform field measurements in England.    

 

 

      Title:                            Measurement and Analysis of Diesel-Fueled Passenger Vehicle Emissions on Dirt versus Paved Roads and During Idling  

Investigators:               H. Christopher Frey

Granting Agency:        Texas Transportation Institute via Clean Air Technologies International, Inc.

Dates:                          June 1, 2005 to July 29, 2005

Brief Description:       The objectives of the study are to determine the possible increase in vehicular emissions as a result of traveling on a dirt road versus a paved road and to compare emissions during extended idling with emissions for comparable time periods when the vehicle is turned off and later restarted.    

 

      Title:                            Development and Application of Optimal Design Capability for Coal Gasification Systems                                        

Investigators:               H. Christopher Frey, Principal Investigator

Granting Agency:        U.S. Department of Energy, Federal Energy Technology Center, via Carnegie Mellon University

Dates:                          1997-2006

Brief Description:        The objective of this project is to develop system analysis tools useful in evaluating energy systems and in addressing the complex problems of environmental management. This project includes the development of a guideline document describing methods for identifying and characterizing key technical and economic uncertainties which are required as inputs for stochastic modeling of energy technologies. This project will include development of new computer simulation models that shall predict the performance, emissions, and cost of advanced fossil fuel power generation and pollution control technologies specified by the U.S. Department of Energy.

 

      Title:                            In-Vehicle Energy and Emissions Information System   

Investigators:               H. Christopher Frey and Nagui M. Rouphail

Granting Agency:        National Science Foundation

Dates:                          January 2003 – December 2007.

Brief Description:       The key objectives of this research project are to:  (1) develop a micro-scale predictor of energy use and emissions that is deployable at the individual vehicle level in real-time; (2) identify, compare and evaluate alternate energy use and emissions sampling/reporting schemes that are appropriate at the vehicle and network levels; (3) Develop and test a prototype In-Vehicle Energy and Emissions Information System (IVEEIS); and (4) formulate and assess the utility of IVEEIS in developing transportation design and control measures aimed at energy and emission management policies.

 

      Title:                            Life Cycle Inventory and Impact Analysis Framework for Nonroad Construction Vehicles and Equipment

Investigators:               H. Christopher Frey and William Rasdorf

Granting Agency:        National Science Foundation

Dates:                          August 31, 2003 to August 31, 2008

Brief Description:       The objectives of this work are to:  (1) Characterize the second-by-second in-use emissions and energy use of nonroad construction vehicles and equipment, including emissions of nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide, and particulate matter, including real time sensing and  monitoring where needed to fill data gaps; (2) Develop a life cycle inventory of conventional nonroad construction vehicles and equipment; and (3) Identify and recommend methods for reducing energy use, emissions, and impacts..

 

 

      Title:                            Real World Duty Cycles and Utilization for Construction Equipment in NC    

 

Investigators:               H. Christopher Frey and William Rasdorf

Granting Agency:        North Carolina Department of Transportation.

Dates:                          July 1, 2005 to June 30, 2007

Brief Description:       Construction vehicles contribute substantially to statewide emissions.  32 NC counties are partially or fully designated as non attainment under new air quality standards for ozone.  Therefore there is a need to more accurately quantify the emissions from construction vehicles and seek opportunities to manage or reduce emissions.  The goal of this study is to assess construction equipment types and uses, plan a field study, measure emissions and collect data, analyze the data and develop typical cycles, and demonstrate methods for estimating emissions for construction equipment.    

 

      Title:                            Best Practices Guidebook for Greenhouse Gas Reductions in Freight Transportation   

Investigators:               Billy Williams and H. Christopher Frey

Granting Agency:        U.S. Department of Transportation via Center for Transportation and the Environment

Dates:                          August 16, 2005 to December 31, 2007

Brief Description:       The study will investigate current efforts within the freight transportation sector to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases in order to develop a list of best practices and promising initiatives.  The investigation will consider programs and demonstration projects developed at the state, local, or individual company/operator level.  The investigation will also consider all modes of freight transport, including air, road, rail, and marine transport.      

 

      Title:                            Exposure Modeling Advice         

Investigators:               H. Christopher Frey

Granting Agency:        National Exposure Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Dates:                          August 16, 2006 to May 15, 2007

Brief Description:       Dr. Frey will be on sabbatical to EPA/NERL as an Exposure Modeling Advisor.  Key areas of work will include:  (a) characterization of human exposures near-roadsides as a result of vehicle emissions; (b) methods for quantification of uncertainty in environmental modeling; and (c) methods for communication of uncertainty to senior-level decision-makers.

 

      Title:                            Training and Instruction Regarding the Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM)

Investigators:               H. Christopher Frey

Granting Agency:        Virginia Department of Environmental Quality

Dates:                          June 1, 2007 to August 15, 2007

Brief Description:       This project focuses on development and delivery of training materials regarding the use of the IECM, with a specific focus on information relevant to the power plant population in the state of Virginia, including fuel and base plant options, emission control options, how to configure the IECM to represent such power plants.      

 

      Title:                            Measurement and Evaluation of Real World Fuel Economy Impacts of a Fuel Additive for Three B20 Biodiesel-Fueled Combination (Tractor-Trailer) Trucks

Investigators:               H. Christopher Frey

Granting Agency:        N.C. Department of Transportation

Dates:                          August 16, 2007 to November 15, 2007

Brief Description:       Field measurement of three combination (tractor-trailer) trucks on B20 biodiesel and on B20 biodiesel with a fuel additive to quantify the effect of the fuel additive on fuel economy and emissions.  Measurements made using a portable emission measurement system.      

 

      Title:                            Comparison of Biodiesel versus Petroleum Diesel Based On In-Use Measurement of Emissions for Heavy Duty Vehicles

Investigators:               H. Christopher Frey

Granting Agency:        Lafarge North America

Dates:                          August 16, 2007 to December 15, 2007

Brief Description:       This project focuses on field data collection, using portable emission measurement systems (PEMS), for a selection of eight Lafarge North America cement mixer vehicles were tested on both petroleum diesel and B20 biodiesel.  The results are used to characterize the effect of B20 fuel on fuel economy and emissions.      

 

      Title:                            Baseline Emissions Characterization of Two Diesel Locomotives

Investigators:               H. Christopher Frey

Granting Agency:        North Carolina Department of Transportation

Dates:                          January 1, 2008 to March 31, 2008

Brief Description:       This project focuses on field data collection, using portable emission measurement systems (PEMS), for two line-haul passenger service locomotives, including one GP40 and one F59.  Emission rates of CO2, CO, NO, hydrocarbons, and PM are characterized for each locomotive for each throttle notch setting as part of yard tests.  The results will be used to characterize the baseline emission rates of these locomotives for comparison to existing and proposed new locomotive emissions standards and as a basis for future comparisons using B20 biodiesel.     

 

      Title:                            Truck Anti-Idling Demonstration Project

Investigators:               Anne Tazewell (NC Solar Center), H. Christopher Frey, and John Stone

Granting Agency:        U.S. Environmental Protection Agency via NC Solar Center

Dates:                          February 2006 to August 2008

Brief Description:       The objective is to assess potential environmental benefits of heavy duty diesel freight truck idle reduction technologies installed on trucks in NC.  A key goal is to quantify actual grams per gallons emissions with a portable gas analyzer and compare this data with data extrapolated from an on-board data logger and fuel use with and without idle reduction technologies.      

 

 

 

Updated September 29, 2009