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H. Christopher Frey

Research Interests

Teaching

Publications

Current and Recent Projects

Past Projects

Computer Laboratory

Frey Research Group

Professional Activities

Real-World Vehicle Emissions

Publications


·       Peer-Reviewed Journal Papers

·       Books

·       Book Chapters and Encyclopedia Articles

·       Book Reviews

·       Editorials

·       Conference Papers – Reviewed

·       Conference Papers – Other

·       Technical Reports

·       Theses and Dissertations Supervised

·       Selected Presentations


Note regarding availability of these publications:  Where possible, I have provided links to Adobe PDF files of publications listed below. 


PEER-REVIEWED JOURNAL PAPERS (Available via publishers, research libraries, or inter-library loan)

 

1.   Rubin, E.S., J.S. Salmento, and H.C. Frey, “Cost-Effective Emission Controls for Coal-Fired Power Plants,” Chemical Engineering Communications, 74:155-167 (1988).  Journal web site.

2.   Frey, H.C., and E.S. Rubin, “Probabilistic Evaluation of Advanced SO2/NOx Control Technology,” Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association, 41(12):1585-1593 (December 1991).  See IECM web site for more information.

3.   Frey, H.C., and E.S. Rubin, “Evaluation Method for Advanced Acid Rain Compliance Technology,” Journal of Energy Engineering, 118(1):38-55 (April 1992).  See IECM web site for more information.

4.   Frey, H.C., and E.S. Rubin, “Evaluation of Advanced Coal Gasification Combined-Cycle Systems Under Uncertainty,” Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 31(5):1299-1307 (May 1992).  See IECM website for more information.

5.   Diwekar, U.M., H.C. Frey, and E.S. Rubin, “Synthesizing Optimal Flowsheets:  Applications to IGCC System Environmental Control,” Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 31(8):1927-1936 (August 1992).  See IECM website for more information.

6.   Frey, H.C., and E.S. Rubin, “Integration of Coal Utilization and Environmental Control in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Systems,” Environmental Science and Technology, 26(10):1982-1990 (October 1992).  See IECM website for more information.

7.   Frey, H.C., E.S. Rubin, and U.M. Diwekar, “Modeling Uncertainties in Advanced Technologies:  Application to a Coal Gasification System with Hot Gas Cleanup,” Energy 19(4):449-463 (1994).  See IECM website for more information.

8.   Shih, J.S., and H.C. Frey, “Coal Blending Optimization Under Uncertainty,” European Journal of Operations Research, 83(3):452-465 (1995).  Abstract and related information.

9.   Frey, H.C., and D.S. Rhodes, “Characterizing, Simulating, and Analyzing Variability and Uncertainty:  An Illustration of Methods Using an Air Toxics Emissions Example,” Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: an International Journal, 2(4):762-797 (December 1996).  Information about HERA.

10. Diwekar, U.M., E.S. Rubin, and H.C. Frey, “Optimal Design of Advanced Power Systems Under Uncertainty,” Energy Conversion and Management, 38(15):1725-1735 (1997).  See IECM website for more information.

11. Rubin, E.S., J.R. Kalagnanam, H.C. Frey, and M.B. Berkenpas, “Integrated Environmental Control Concepts for Coal-Fired Power Plants,” Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association, 47(11):1180-1188 (November 1997).  See IECM website for more information.

12. Agarwal, P., and H.C. Frey, “Modeling and Evaluation of the Externally Fired Combined Cycle Using ASPEN,” Journal of Energy Engineering, 123(3):69-87 (December 1997).  More information about this article.

13. Frey, H.C., and Z. Iwanski, "Probabilistic Methodology for Risk Assessment of New Energy Technologies and Application to Gasification Repowering for an Oil Refinery in Poland," Energy Conversion and Management, 39 (16/18):267-274 (1998).  (special issue based on the Florence World Energy Symposium – FLOWERS ’97)  Information about the journal.

14. Frey, H.C., and D.S. Rhodes, “Characterization and Simulation of Uncertain Frequency Distributions:  Effects of Distribution Choice, Variability, Uncertainty, and Parameter Dependence,” Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: an International Journal, 4(2):423-468 (April 1998).  How to obtain this from the publisher.

15. Frey, H.C., and D.E. Burmaster, “Methods for Characterizing Variability and Uncertainty:  Comparison of Bootstrap Simulation and Likelihood-Based Approaches,” Risk Analysis, 19(1):109-130 (February 1999).  How to obtain this from the publisher.

16. Hanna, S.R., Z. Lu, H.C. Frey, N. Wheeler, J. Vukovich, S. Arunachalam, M. Fernau, and D.A. Hansen, "Uncertainties in Predicted Ozone Concentrations due to Input Uncertainties for the UAM-V Photochemical Grid Model Applied to the July 1995 OTAG Domain," Atmospheric Environment, 35(5):891-903 (2001).  Journal web site.

17. Frey, H.C., and S. Bammi, "Quantification of Variability and Uncertainty in Lawn and Garden Equipment NOx and Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors," Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 52(4):435-448 (April 2002).  Abstract and other information.

18. Frey, H.C., and S.R. Patil, “Identification and Review of Sensitivity Analysis Methods,” Risk Analysis, 22(3):553-578 (June 2002).  Preprint available here.  Available from publisher.

19. Frey,  H.C., and J. Zheng, "Quantification of Variability and Uncertainty in Utility NOx Emission Inventories," Journal of Air & Waste Manage. Association, 52(9):1083-1095 (September 2002).  Journal abstract and download/ordering information.

20. Frey, H.C., and J. Zheng, "Probabilistic Analysis of Driving Cycle-Based Highway Vehicle Emission Factors," Environmental Science and Technology, 36(23):5184-5191 (December 2002).  Abstract and link to more information.

21. Frey, H.C., and S. Bammi, "Probabilistic Nonroad Mobile Source Emission Factors," ASCE Journal of Environmental Engineering, 129(2):162-168 (February 2003).  Abstract and link to more information.

22. Frey, H.C., A. Unal, N.M. Rouphail, and J.D. Colyar, “On-Road Measurement of Vehicle Tailpipe Emissions Using a Portable Instrument,” Journal. of Air & Waste Manage. Assoc., 53(8):992-1002 (August 2003).  Open access to this paper.

23. Abdel-Aziz, A., and H.C. Frey, “Quantification of Hourly Variability in NOx Emissions for Baseload Coal-Fired Power Plants,” Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 53(11):1401-1411 (November 2003).  Journal abstract and download/ordering information.

24. Abdel-Aziz, A., and H.C. Frey, “Development of Hourly Probabilistic Utility NOx Emission Inventories Using Time Series Techniques:  Part I-Univariate Approach,” Atmospheric Environment, 37:5379-5389 (2003).  Journal web site.

25. Abdel-Aziz, A., and H.C. Frey, “Development of Hourly Probabilistic Utility NOx Emission Inventories Using Time Series Techniques:  Part II-Multivariate Approach,” Atmospheric Environment, 37:5391-5401 (2003).  Journal web site.

26. Frey, H.C., and S. Li, “Quantification of Variability and Uncertainty in AP-42 Emission Factors:  Case Studies for Natural Gas-Fueled Engines,” Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 53(12):1436-1447 (December 2003).  Journal abstract and download/ordering information.

27. Unal, A., N.M. Rouphail, and H.C. Frey, “Effect of Arterial Signalization and Level of Service on Measured Vehicle Emissions,” Transportation Research Record, Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 1842, pp. 47-56 (2003).  Abstract and related information.

28. Unal, A., H.C. Frey, and N.M. Rouphail, “Quantification of Highway Vehicle Emissions Hot Spots Based Upon On-Board Measurements,” Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 54(2):130-140 (February 2004).  Journal abstract and download/ordering information.

29. Abdel-Aziz, A., and H.C. Frey, “Propagation of Uncertainty in Hourly Utility NOx Emissions Through a Photochemical Grid Air Quality Model:  A Case Study for the Charlotte, NC Modeling Domain,” Environmental Science and Technology, 38(7):2153-2160 (2004).  Abstract and link to more information.

30. Patil, S.R., and H.C. Frey, “Comparison of Sensitivity Analysis Methods Based Upon Applications to a Food Safety Risk Model,” Risk Analysis, 23(3):573-585 (June 2004).  Abstract and related information.

31. Zheng, J., and H.C. Frey, “Quantification of Variability and Uncertainty Using Mixture Distributions:  Evaluation of Sample Size, Mixing Weights and Separation between Components,” Risk Analysis, 24(3):553-571 (June 2004).  Abstract and related information.

32. Zhao, Y., and H.C. Frey, “Quantification of Variability and Uncertainty for Censored Data Sets and Application to Air Toxic Emission Factors,” Risk Analysis, 24(4):1019-1034 (2004).  Abstract and related information.

33. Frey, H.C., and Y. Zhao, “Quantification of Variability and Uncertainty for Air Toxic Emission Inventories With Censored Emission Factor Data,” Environmental Science and Technology, 38(22):6094-6100 (2004).  Abstract and link to more information.

34. Chen, J., and H.C. Frey, “Optimization Under Variability and Uncertainty:  A Case Study for NOx Emissions Control for a Gasification System,” Environmental Science and Technology, 38(24):6741-6747 (2004).  Abstract and link to more information.

35. Zhao, Y., and H.C. Frey, “Development of Probabilistic Emission Inventory for Air Toxic Emissions for Jacksonville, Florida,” Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 54(11):1405-1421 (2004).  Journal abstract and download/ordering information.

36. Mokhtari, A., and H.C. Frey, “Recommended Practice Regarding Selection of Sensitivity Analysis Methods Applied to Microbial Food Safety Process Risk Models,” Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 11(3):591-605 (2005).  Abstract and related information.

37. Zheng, J., and H.C. Frey, “Quantitative Analysis of Variability and Uncertainty with Known Measurement Error:  Methodology and Case Study,” Risk Analysis, 25(3):663-676 (2005).  Abstract and related information.

38. Mokhtari, A., and H.C. Frey, “Sensitivity Analysis of a Two-Dimensional Probabilistic Risk Assessment Model Using Analysis of Variance,” Risk Analysis, 25(6):1511-1529 (2005).  Abstract and related information.

39. Frey, H.C., and Y. Zhu, “Improved System Integration for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Systems,” Environmental Science and Technology, 40(5):1693-1699 (March 2006).  Abstract and link to more information.

40. Mokhtari, A., H.C. Frey, and L.-A. Jaykus, “Application of Classification and Regression Trees (CART) for Sensitivity Analysis of the Escherichia coli O157:H7 Food Safety Process Risk Model,” Journal of Food Protection.  69(3): 609–618 (March 2006).  Abstract and related information.

41. Zhang, K., and H.C. Frey, “Road Grade Estimation for On-Road Vehicle Emissions Modeling  Using LIDAR Data,” Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 56(6):777-788 (June 2006).  Journal abstract and download/ordering information.

42. Silva, C.M, T.L. Farias, H.C. Frey,  and N.M. Rouphail, “Evaluation of Numerical Models for Simulation of Real-World Hot-Stabilized Fuel Consumption and Emissions of Gasoline Light-Duty Vehicles.” Transportation Research Part D, 11(5):377-385 (2006).  Abstract and related information.

43. Miller, C.A., G. Hidy, J. Hales, C.E. Kolb, A.S. Werner, B. Haneke, D. Parrish, C. Frey, L. Rojas-Blanco, M. DesLauriers, B. Pennell, and J.D. Mobley, “Air Emissions Inventories in North America:  A Critical Assessment,” Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 56(8):1115-1129 (August 2006).  Journal abstract and download/ordering information.

44. Mokhtari, A., H.C. Frey, and J. Zheng, “Evaluation and recommendation of sensitivity analysis methods for application to Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation (SHEDS) models,” Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, 16(6):491-506 (Nov 2006).  Abstract and related information.

45. Mokhtari, A., and H.C. Frey, “Evaluation of Sampling-Based Methods for Sensitivity Analysis: Case Study for the E. coli Food Safety Process Risk Model,” Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 12(6):1128-1152 (Dec 2006).  Abstract and related information.

46. Zhao, Y. and H.C. Frey, “Uncertainty for Data with Non-Detects: Air Toxic Emissions from Combustion,” Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 12(6):1171-1191 (Dec 2006).  Abstract and related information.

47. Zhu, Y., and H.C. Frey, “Uncertainty Analysis of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Systems Based on Frame 7H versus 7F Gas Turbines,” Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 56(12):1649-1661 (Dec 2006).  Journal abstract and download/ordering information.

48. Frey, H.C., and K. Kim, “Comparison of Real-World Fuel Use and Emissions for Dump Trucks Fueled with B20 Biodiesel Versus Petroleum Diesel,” Transportation Research Record, 1987:110-117 (2006).  Abstract and related information.

49. Frey, H.C., N.M. Rouphail, and H. Zhai, “Speed- and Facility-Specific Emission Estimates for On-Road Light-Duty Vehicles based on Real-World Speed Profiles,” Transportation Research Record, 1987:128-137 (2006).  Abstract and related information.

50. Vicari A.S., A. Mohktari, R.A. Morales, L.A. Jaykus, H.C. Frey, B.D. Slenning and P. Cowen, “Second-Order Modeling of Variability and Uncertainty in Microbial Hazard Characterization,” Journal of Food Protection, 70(2):363-372 (February 2007).  PubMed web site.

51. Frey, H.C., N.M. Rouphail, H. Zhai, T.L. Farias, and G.A. Gonçalves, “Modeling and Comparing Real-World Fuel Consumption for Diesel- and Hydrogen-Fueled Transit Buses and Implication for Emissions,” Transportation Research – Part D.  12:281-291 (2007).  Abstract and related information.

52. Zhu, Y., and H.C. Frey, “Simplified Performance Model of Gas Turbine Combined Cycle Systems,” ASCE Journal of Energy Engineering, 133(2):82-90 (June 2007).  Abstract and related information.

53. Zhang, K., and H.C. Frey, “Evaluation of Response Time of a Portable System for In-Use Vehicle Tailpipe Emissions Measurements,” Environmental Science and Technology, 42(1), 221–227 (2008).  Abstract and related information.  Paper.

54. Frey, H.C., K. Zhang, and N.M. Rouphail, “Fuel Use and Emissions Comparisons for Alternative Routes, Time of Day, Road Grade, and Vehicles Based on In-Use Measurements,” Environmental Science and Technology, 42(7):2483–2489 (2008).  Abstract and related information.

55. Abolhasani, S., H.C. Frey, K. Kim, S. Pang, W. Rasdorf, P. Lewis, “Real-World In-Use Activity, Fuel Use, and Emissions for Nonroad Construction Vehicles: A Case Study for Excavators,” Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 58(8):1033-1046 (2008).  Available online for AWMA members and subscribers.

56. Kim, K., H.C. Frey, W. Rasdorf, S. Pang, P. Lewis, “Characterization of Real-World Activity, Fuel Use, and Emissions for Selected Motor Graders Fueled with Petroleum Diesel and B20 Biodiesel,” Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 58(10):1274-1287 (2008). 

57. Zhai, H., H.C. Frey, and N.M. Rouphail, “A Vehicle-Specific Power Approach to Speed-  and Facility-Specific Emissions Estimates for Diesel Transit Buses,” Environmental Science and Technology, 42(21):7985-7991. Available online via the American Chemical Society.

58. Frey, H.C., W.J. Rasdorf, K. Kim, S.H. Pang, P. Lewis, “Comparison of Real-World Emissions of Backhoes, Front-End Loaders and Motor Graders for B20 Biodiesel vs. Petroleum Diesel for Selected Engine Tiers,” Transportation Research Record, 2058:33-42 (2008).  Available via the Transportation Research Board.

59. Frey, H.C., N.M. Rouphail, and H. Zhai, “Link-Based Emission Factors for Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks Based on Real-World Data,” Transportation Research Record, 2058:23-32 (2008).  Available via the Transportation Research Board.

60. Frey, H.C., P.Y. Kuo, and C. Villa, “Methodology for Characterization of Long-Haul Truck Idling Activity under Real-World Conditions,” Transportation Research – Part D, 13D(8):516-523 (2008).  Available online to ScienceDirect subscribers.

61. Coelho, M., H.C. Frey, N.M. Rouphail, H. Zhai, and L. Pelkmans, “Assessing Methods for Comparing Emissions from Gasoline and Diesel Light-Duty Vehicles Based on Microscale Measurements,” Transportation Research – Part D, 14D(2):91-99 (March 2009).  Available online to ScienceDirect subscribers.

62. Ozkaynak, H., H.C. Frey, J. Burke, and R.W. Pinder, “Analysis of coupled model uncertainties in source to dose modeling of human exposures to ambient air pollution: a PM2.5 case-study,” Atmospheric Environment, 43(9): 1641-1649 (March 2009).  Available to subscribers online.

63. Lewis, P., W. Rasdorf, H.C. Frey, S.H. Pang, and K. Kim, “Requirements and Incentives for Reducing Construction Vehicle Emissions and Comparison of Nonroad Diesel Engine Emissions Data Sources,” ASCE Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 135(5):341-351 (May 2009).  Available to subscribers online.

64. Bogen, K., A. Cullen, H.C. Frey, and P. Price, “Probabilistic Exposure Analysis for Chemical Risk Characterization,” Toxicological Sciences, 109(1):4-17 (May 2009).  Available on-line.

65. Frey, H.C., and P.Y. Kuo, “Real-World Energy Use and Emission Rates for Idling Long-Haul Truck Engines and Selected Idle Reduction Technologies,” Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 59(7):857-864 (July 2009). 

66. Zhai, H., H.C. Frey, N.M. Rouphail, G. Goncalves, and T. Farias, “Comparison of Flexible Fuel Vehicle and Life Cycle Fuel Consumption and Emissions of Selected Pollutants and Greenhouse Gases for Ethanol 85 Versus Gasoline,” Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 59(8):912-924 (August 2009). 

67. Pang, S.H., H.C. Frey, and W.J. Rasdorf, “Life Cycle Inventory Energy Consumption and Emissions for Biodiesel versus Petroleum Diesel Fueled Construction Vehicles,” Environmental Science and Technology, 43(16):6398-6405 (August 15, 2009).  Available online.

68. Frey, H.C., P.Y. Kuo, and C. Villa, “Effects of Idle Reduction Technologies on Real World Fuel Use and Exhaust Emissions of Idling Long-Haul Trucks,” Environmental Science and Technology, 43(17):6875–6881 (DOI: 10.1021/es900186e, 2009).  Available online.

69. Frey, H.C., H. Zhai, and N.M. Rouphail, “Regional On-Road Vehicle Running Emissions Modeling and Evaluation for Conventional and Alternative Vehicle Technologies,” Environmental Science and Technology, 43(21):8449–8455 (doi: 10.1021/es900535s).  Available online.

70. Choi, H.W. and H.C. Frey, “Estimating Light Duty Gasoline Vehicle Emission Factors at High Transient and Constant Speeds for Short Road Segments,” Transportation Research – Part D.  14(8):610–614 (2009). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2009.09.001.

71. Frey, H.C., and K. Kim, “In-Use Measurement of Activity, Fuel Use, and Emissions of Cement Mixer Trucks Operated on Petroleum Diesel and B20 Biodiesel,” Transportation Research – Part D.  14(8):585-592 (2009).  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2009.08.004.

72. Lewis, P., H.C. Frey, and W. Rasdorf, “Development and Use of Emissions Inventories for Construction Vehicles,” Transportation Research Record, 2123:46-53 (2009).  Available online.

73. Rasdorf, W., H.C. Frey, P. Lewis, K. Kim, S. Pang, and S. Abolhasani, “Field Procedures for Real-World Measurements of Emissions from Diesel Construction Vehicles,” ASCE Journal of Infrastructure Systems, 16(3):216-225 (Sept 2010).  Available Online.

74. Choi, H.W., and H.C. Frey, “Estimating Diesel Vehicle Emission Factors at Constant and High Speeds for Short Road Segments,” Transportation Research Record, No. 2158:19-27 (2010).  Available online.

75. Frey, H.C., W. Rasdorf, P. Lewis, “Results of a Comprehensive Study of Fuel Use and Emissions of Nonroad Diesel Construction Equipment,” Transportation Research Record, No. 2158:69-76 (2010).  Available online.

76. Liu, X., H.C. Frey, and Y. Cao, “Estimation of In-Vehicle Concentration and Human Exposure for PM2.5 Based on Near Roadway Ambient Air Quality and Variability in Vehicle Operation,” Transportation Research Record, No. 2158:105-112 (2010).  Available online.

77. Frey, H.C., K. Zhang, and N.M. Rouphail, “Vehicle-Specific Emissions Modeling Based Upon On-Road Measurements,” Environmental Science and Technology, 44(9):3594-3600 (2010).  Available online.

78. Choi, H.W., and H.C. Frey, “Method for In-Use Measurement and Evaluation of the Activity, Fuel Use, Electricity Use, and Emissions of a Plug-in Hybrid Diesel-Electric School Bus,” Environmental Science and Technology, 44(9):3601-3607 (2010).  Available online.

79. Cao, Y., and H.C. Frey, “Assessment of Inter-Individual and Geographic Variability in Human Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter in Environmental Tobacco Smoke,” Risk Analysis, 31(4):578-591 (2011).  Available online.

80. Liu, X., and H.C. Frey, “Modeling Of In-Vehicle Human Exposure to Ambient Fine Particulate Matter,” Atmospheric Environment, 45(27):4745-4752 (2011). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.04.019.  Available online.  Available via PubMed.

81. Zhai, H., H.C. Frey, and N.M. Rouphail, “Development of A Modal Emissions Model for A Hybrid Electric Vehicle,” Transportation Research – Part D. 16(6):444-450 (2011).

82. Cao, Y., and H.C. Frey, “Geographic differences in inter-individual variability of human exposure to fine particulate matter,” Atmospheric Environment, 45(32):5684-5691 (2011).  Available online.

83. Graver, B.M, H.C. Frey, and H.W. Choi (2011), “In-Use Measurement of the Activity, Energy Use, and Emissions of a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle,” Environmental Science and Technology, 45(20):9044-9051.  Also available via publisher.

84. Lewis, P., M. Leming, H.C. Frey, and W. Rasdorf (2011), “Assessing the Effects of Operational Efficiency on Pollutant Emissions of Nonroad Diesel Construction Equipment,” Transportation Research Record, 2233:11-18.

85. Rasdorf, W.R., P. Lewis, S.K. Marshall, I. Arocho, H.C. Frey, “Evaluation of Fuel Use and Emissions Over the Duration of a Construction Building Project,” ASCE Journal of Infrastructure Systems, 18(2):119-129 (2012).  DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)IS.1943-555X.0000071.

86. Cao, Y., and H.C. Frey, “Modeling of Human Exposure to In-Vehicle PM2.5 from Environmental Tobacco Smoke,” Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 18(3):608-626 (2012) DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2012.672894.

87. Lee, T., and H.C. Frey, “Evaluation of Representativeness of Site-Specific Fuel-based Vehicle Emission Factors for Area-wide Average Emissions,” Environmental Science and Technology, 46(12):6867–6873 (2012).  DOI: 10.1021/es204451z.

88. Chang, H.H., M. Fuentes, and H. C. Frey, “Time Series Analysis of Personal Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and Mortality Using an Exposure Simulator,” Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, 22, 483-488 (2012) doi:10.1038/jes.2012.53.  Sept/Oct 2012.

89. Lewis, P., W. Rasdorf, M. Leming, and H.C. Frey, “Effects of Engine Idling on NAAQS Criteria Pollutant Emissions from Nonroad Diesel Construction Equipment,” Transportation Research Record, No. 2270, pp 67-75.  DOI: 10.3141/2270-09.

90. Sandhu, G.S., and H.C. Frey, “Real-World Measurement and Evaluation of Heavy Duty Truck Duty Cycles, Fuels, and Emission Control Technologies,” Transportation Research Record, No. 2270, pp. 180-187.  DOI: 10.3141/2270-21.

91. Marshall, S.K., W. Rasdorf, P. Lewis, H.C. Frey, “A Methodology for Estimating Emissions Inventories for Commercial Building Projects,” ASCE Journal of Architectural Engineering, 18(3):25-260 (September 2012).  doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)AE.1943-5568.0000073

92. Jiao, W., H.C. Frey, and Y. Cao, “Assessment of Inter-Individual, Geographic, and Seasonal Variability in Estimated Human Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter.” Environmental Science and Technology, 46(22):12519-12526 (2012) DOI: 10.1021/es302803g.

93. Frey, H.C., H.W. Choi, and K. Kim, “Portable Emissions Measurement System for Emissions of Passenger Rail Locomotives,” Transportation Research Record, 2289:56-63 (2012).  DOI:  10.3141/2289-08.

94. Abolhasani, S., and H.C. Frey, “Variability in Construction Equipment Emissions by Equipment Type and Duty Cycle,” ASCE Journal of Environmental Engineering, 139(2):261-268 (February 2013).  DOI:  10.1061/(ASCE)EE.1943-7870.0000548.

95. Yazdani, B., H.C. Frey, and G.S. Sandhu, “In-Vehicle Road Grade Measurement Using Stand-Alone GPS with Barometric Altimeter,” ASCE Journal of Transportation Engineering, 139(6):605-611.  DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)TE.1943-5436.0000545

In Press/Accepted for Publication

96. Graver, B.M., and H.C. Frey, “Comparison of Locomotive Emissions Measured during Dynamometer versus Rail Yard Engine Load Tests,” Transportation Research Record, Submitted 7/26/12, revised and resubmitted 11/15/12, accepted 2/12/13.

97. Jiao, W., and H.C. Frey, “Method for Measuring the Ratio of In-Vehicle to Near-Vehicle Exposure Concentrations of Airborne Fine Particles,”  Transportation Research Record, Submitted 7/27/12, revised and resubmitted 11/9/12, accepted 2/12/13.

98. Sandhu, G.S., and H.C. Frey, “Effects of Errors on Vehicle Emission Rates from Portable Emissions Measurement Systems,” Transportation Research Record, Submitted 8/1/12, revised and resubmitted 11/13/12, accepted 2/12/13.

99. Salamati, K., M. Coelho, P. Fernandes, N.M. Rouphail, H.C. Frey and J. Bandeira, Emission Estimation at Multilane Roundabouts: Effect of Movement and Approach Lane, Transportation Research Record, recommended for publication on 2/10/13, accepted 2/21/13.

100.    Mannshardt, E., K. Sucic, W. Jiao, F. Dominici, H.C. Frey, B. Reich, and M. Fuentes, Comparing Exposure Metrics for the Effects of Fine Particulate Matter on Emergency Hospital Admissions, Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, accepted 4/28/13.

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BOOKS

1.   Cullen, A.C., and H.C. Frey.  The Use of Probabilistic Techniques in Exposure Assessment:  A Handbook for Dealing with Variability and Uncertainty in Models and Inputs.  Plenum:  New York, 1999.  335 pages.  ISBN: 978-0-306-45957-3 (softcover), available via Springer.

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BOOK CHAPTERS and ENCYCLOPEDIA ARTICLES

1.   Frey, H.C., and E.S. Rubin, “Uncertainty Evaluation in Capital Cost Projection,” in Encyclopedia of Chemical Processing and Design, Vol. 59, J.J. McKetta, ed.,  Marcel Dekker:  New York,  1997, pp. 480-494.

2.     Frey, H.C., “Quantitative Analysis of Variability and Uncertainty in Energy and Environmental Systems,” Chapter 23 in Uncertainty Modeling and Analysis in Civil Engineering, B. M. Ayyub, ed., CRC Press:  Boca Raton, FL, 1998, pp. 381-423.  Preprint available here.

3.     Frey, H.C., and R. Bharvirkar, "Quantification of Variability and Uncertainty:  A Case Study of Power Plant Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions," Chapter 10 in Human and Ecological Risk Analysis, D. Paustenbach, Ed., John Wiley and Sons:  New York, 2002.  pp 587-617.  Preprint available here.

4.   Zhu, Yunhua, and H.C. Frey, “Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Systems,” Chapter 3 in Advanced Power Plant Materials, Design and Technology, D. Roddy, ed., Woodhead Publishing, 2010, pp. 54-88.

5.   Hubbell, B., and H.C. Frey, “Risk Based Assessment and Management Framework,” Chapter 3 in Technical Challenges of Multipollutant Air Quality Management; Hidy, G.M., Brook, J., Demerjian, K., Molina, L., Pennell, W., Scheffe, R., Eds.; Springer: New York, 2011, pp. 45-66..

6.   Zhu, Yunhua, and H.C. Frey, “Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems,” Chapter 3 in Combined Cycle Systems for Near-Zero Emission Power Generation, A.D. Rao, editor, Woodhead Publishing Limited, Cambridge, England, UK (in press).

7.   Frey, H.C., and Y. Zhu, “Techno-Economic Analysis,” Chapter 10 in Combined Cycle Systems for Near-Zero Emission Power Generation, A.D. Rao, editor, Woodhead Publishing Limited, Cambridge, England, UK (in press).

8.   Frey, H.C., and B.M. Graver, “Real-World Activity, Energy Use, and Emissions of a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle,” in Grid Electrified Vehicles:  Performance, Design, and Environmental Impacts, C. de Silva, Ed., Nova Science Publishers, NY, in press, 2013

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BOOK REVIEWS

1.   Merz, J.F., and H.C. Frey, “Book Review:  Regulating Toxic Substances,” Risk, Health, Safety, and Environment, 5:75-80 (Winter 1994).  Read the review and author’s reply.

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EDITORIALS

1.     Frey, H.C. and E. S. Rubin, “Evaluate Uncertainties In Advanced Process Technologies,” Chemical Engineering Progress, 88(5):63-70 (May 1992).  See IECM Website for more information.

2.     Frey, H.C., “Guest Editorial:  Introduction to Special Section on Sensitivity Analysis and Summary of NCSU/USDA Workshop on Sensitivity Analysis,” Risk Analysis, 22(3):539-545 (June 2002).  Abstract and related information.

3.     Frey, H.C., and M.J. Small, “Uncertainty in Emission Factors and Emission Inventories,” Journal of Industrial Ecology, 7(1):9-11 (2003).  Abstract and related information.

4.   Özkaynak, H., H.C. Frey, and B. Hubbell, “Characterizing Variability and Uncertainty in Exposure Assessment Improves Links to Environmental Decision-Making,” EM Magazine (Air & Waste Management Association), July 2008, pp. 18-22.

5.   Frey, H.C., “Highest Education:  Research Oriented Graduate Study Options,” EM Magazine, (Air & Waste Management Association), September 2012, pp. 6-9.

6.   Frey, H.C., “Pursue a Master’s Degree via Distance Education,” EM Magazine, (Air & Waste Management Association), September 2012, pp. 16-19.

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CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS PAPERS (PEER-REVIEWED)

1.   Rubin, E.S., J.S. Salmento, and H.C. Frey, “Evaluating Combined SO2/NOx Processes,” Proceedings:  Fourth Symposium on  Integrated Environmental Control, Report No. GS-6519, Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, California, September 1989, pp. 6-1 to 6-15.  Availability (how to obtain this).

2.   Frey, H.C., E.S. Rubin, and U.M. Diwekar, “An Evaluation Method for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Power Systems,” Paper No. 90-103.6, Proceedings of the 83rd Annual Meeting (held June 24-29 in Pittsburgh, PA), Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, June 1990.

3.   Rubin, E.S., H.C. Frey, and U.M. Diwekar, “Probabilistic Modeling of the Performance and Economics of IGCC Systems,” Integrating Environmental Controls and Energy Production, Report No. EC-Vol. 2, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, New York, 1991, p. 59-66.

4.   Frey, H.C., and E.S. Rubin, “Evaluating Advanced Technologies for Acid Rain Compliance,” Energy in the 90's, B.F. Hobbs, ed., American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, 1991, p. 172-178.

5.   Frey, H.C., and E.S. Rubin, "High Efficiency Integrated Environmental Control for Coal-Based Power Generation," Paper No. 92-108.02, Proceedings of the 85th Annual Meeting (held June 21-26 in Kansas City, MO), Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, June 1992.  Available at IECM Web Site.

6.   Frey, H.C., “Performance Model of the Fluidized Bed Copper Oxide Process for SO2/NOx Control,” Paper No. 93-WA-79.01, Proceedings of the 86th Annual Meeting (held June 13-18 in Denver, CO), Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, June 1993.  Available here.

7.   Frey, H.C., "Separating Variability and Uncertainty in Exposure Assessment:  Motivation and Methods," Paper No. 93-RA-116A.02, Proceedings of the 86th Annual Meeting, (held June 13-18 in Denver, CO), Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, June 1993.  Available here.

8.   Rubin, E.S., M.B. Berkenpas, H.C. Frey, and B. Toole-O'Neil, "Modeling the Uncertainty in Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions," Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Managing Hazardous Air Pollutants, Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA, July 1993.

9.   Frey, H.C., “Probabilistic Performance, Environmental, and Economic Evaluation of an Advanced Coal Gasification System,” Paper No. 94-TA260.05P, Proceedings of the 87th Annual Meeting (held June 19-24 in Cincinnati, OH), Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, June 1994.  Available here.

10. Frey, H.C., “Quantitative Analysis of Uncertainty and Variability in Exposure and Risk Assessment:  Some Guidance on Why and How,” Paper No. 94-TP55.03, Proceedings of the 87th Annual Meeting (held June 19-24 in Cincinnati, OH), Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, June 1994.

11. Diwekar, U.M., E.S. Rubin, and H.C. Frey, “Optimal Design and Synthesis of Advanced Power Systems under Uncertainty,” Proceedings of the Coal-Fired Power Systems 94—Advances in IGCC and PFBC Review Meeting, Volume 1, U.S. Department of Energy, Morgantown, West Virginia, June 21-23, 1994, pp. 499-512.  Proceedings available online.

12. Frey, H.C., U.M. Diwekar, and E.S. Rubin, “Probabilistic Modeling of High Efficiency Environmental Control for Advanced Coal Gasification Power Generation,” Proceedings, 5th Pollution Prevention Topical Conference, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, New York, 1994.

13. Haimes, Y.Y., T. Barry, and J.H. Lambert (Eds), “When and How Can You Specify a Probability Distribution When You Don't Know Much?,” Risk Analysis, 14(5):661-706 (October 1994).  Steering Committee Member and Workshop Participant/Contributor (see pp. 703-706).  Abstract and related information.

14. Frey, H.C., and A.C. Cullen, “Distribution Development for Probabilistic Exposure Assessment,” Paper No. 95-42.02, Proceedings of the 88th Annual Meeting (held June 18-23 in San Antonio, TX), Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, June 1995.  Available here.

15. Agarwal, P., and H.C. Frey, “Performance Model of the Externally-Fired Combined Cycle (EFCC) System,” Paper No. 95-7.02, Proceedings of the 88th Annual Meeting (held June 18-23 in San Antonio, TX), Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, June 1995.  Available here.

16. Frey, H.C., M.D. Kini, S.R. Ranjithan, and S.Y. Fu, “Uncertainty, Bias, and Variability in Emission Factors for Light Duty Gasoline Vehicles,” Paper No. 96-108B.03, Proceedings of the 89th Annual Meeting (held June 23-28 in Nashville, TN), Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, June 1996.  Available here.

17. Frey, H.C., and P. Agarwal, “Probabilistic Analysis and Optimization of Clean Coal Technologies,” Paper No. 96-119.02, Proceedings of the 89th Annual Meeting (held June 23-28 in Nashville, TN), Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, June 1996.  Available here.

18. Tran, L.K., and H.C. Frey, “Methods for Evaluating the Costs of Utility NOx Control Technologies,” Paper No. 96-139.06, Proceedings of the 89th Annual Meeting (held June 23-28 in Nashville, TN), Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, June 1996.  Available here.

19. Frey, H.C., “Comparison of Classroom and Video-Based Instruction:  A Case Study for a Graduate-Level Air Pollution Control Course,” Paper No. 96-125.03, Proceedings of the 89th Annual Meeting (held June 23-28 in Nashville, TN), Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, June 1996.  Available here.

20. Rubin, E.S., U.M. Diwekar, and H.C. Frey, “Optimizing Advanced Power Systems Design Under Uncertainty,” Proceedings of the Advanced Coal-Fired Power Systems Review Meeting, U.S. Department of Energy, Morgantown, West Virginia, July 16-18, 1996 (CD-ROM).  Paper available at U.S. Department of Energy website.

21. Frey, H.C., “Bootstrap Methods for Quantitative Analysis of Variability and Uncertainty in Exposure and Risk Assessment,” Paper No. 97-RA100B.03, Proceedings of the 90th Annual Meeting (held June 18-13 in Toronto, Canada), Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, June 1997 (CD-ROM).

22. Frey, H.C., and D.A. Eichenberger, “Quantification of Uncertainty in Remote Sensing-Based School Bus CO and Hydrocarbon Emission Factors,” Paper No. 97-RP143.07, Proceedings of the 90th Annual Meeting (held June 18-13 in Toronto, Canada), Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, June 1997 (CD-ROM).

23. Frey, H.C., and Z. Iwanski, “Probabilistic Methodology for Risk Assessment of New Energy Technologies and Application to Gasification Repowering for an Oil Refinery in Poland,” FLOWERS ‘97: Florence World Energy Symposium, SGEditorial:  Padova, Italy, 1997, pp. 267-274.

24. Frey, H.C., and R. Bharvirkar, “Desktop Modeling of the Performance, Emissions, and Cost of Gasification Systems,” Paper No. 98-RAA.02P, Proceedings of the 91st Annual Meeting  (held June 14-18 in San Diego, CA), Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, June 1998 (CD-ROM).  Available here.

25. Frey, H.C., “Methods for Quantitative Analysis of Variability and Uncertainty in Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions,” Paper No. 98-RP105B.01, Proceedings of the 91st Annual Meeting  (held June 14-18 in San Diego, CA), Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, June 1998 (CD-ROM).  Available here.

26. Akunuri, N.V., and H.C. Frey, “Modeling the Performance, Emissions, and Cost of an Entrained-Flow Gasification Combined Cycle System Using ASPEN,” Paper No. 99-379, Proceedings of the 92nd Annual Meeting  (held June 20-24 in St. Louis, MO), Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, June 1999 (CD-ROM).  Available here.

27. Unal, A., R.H. Dalton, H.C. Frey, and N.M. Rouphail, “Simultaneous Measurement of On-Road Vehicle Emissions and Traffic Flow Using Remote Sensing and an Area-Wide Detector,” Paper No. 99-712, Proceedings of the 92nd Annual Meeting  (held June 20-24 in St. Louis, MO), Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, June 1999 (CD-ROM).  Available here.

28. Frey, H.C., R. Bharvirkar, and J. Zheng, “Quantification of Variability and Uncertainty in Emission Factors,” Paper No. 99-267, Proceedings of the 92nd Annual Meeting  (held June 20-24 in St. Louis, MO), Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, June 1999 (CD-ROM).  Available here.

29. Zheng, J., A. Unal, and H.C. Frey, "Variability and Uncertainty Analysis of CO Exposure to Vehicle Passengers During Cold-Start, Proceedings of 93rd Annual Meeting of the Air & Waste Management Association, Salt Lake City, Utah, June 18-22, 2000.

30. Rouphail, N.M, H.C. Frey, A. Unal, and J.D. Colyar, "Vehicle Emissions and Traffic Measures:  Exploratory Analysis of Field Data at Signalized Intersections," Proceedings of 2001 Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, January 6-12, 2001.

31. Frey, H.C., and J. Zheng, " Quantification of Variability and Uncertainty in Emission Inventories: A Prototype Software Tool with Application to Utility NOx Emissions," Proceedings, Annual Meeting of the Air & Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, PA, June 2001.  Available here.

32. Coehlo, M., and H.C. Frey, "Evaluation of Alternative Future Energy Scenarios for Brazil Using an Energy Mix Model," Proceedings, Annual Meeting of the Air & Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, PA, June 2001.  Available here.

33. Zheng, J., and H.C. Frey, "Quantitative Analysis of Variability and Uncertainty in Emission Estimation: An Illustration of Methods Using Mixture Distributions," Proceedings, Annual Meeting of the Air & Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, PA, June 2001.  Available here.

34. Bammi, S., and H.C. Frey, " Quantification Of Variability and Uncertainty In Lawn And Garden Equipment NOx and Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors," Proceedings, Annual Meeting of the Air & Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, PA, June 2001.  Available here.

35. Frey, H.C., N.M. Rouphail, A. Unal, and J. Colyar, "Measurement of On-Road Tailpipe CO, NO, and Hydrocarbon Emissions Using a Portable Instrument," Proceedings, Annual Meeting of the Air & Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, PA, June 2001.  Available here.

36. Frey, H.C., and S. Li, "Quantification of Variability and Uncertainty in Stationary Natural Gas-fueled Internal Combustion Engine NOx and Total Organic Compounds Emission Factor," Proceedings, Annual Meeting of the Air & Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, PA, June 2001.  Available here.

37. Li, S., and H.C. Frey, “Methods and Example for Development of a Probabilistic Per-Capita Emission Factor for VOC Emissions from Consumer/Commercial Product Use”, Proceedings, Annual Meeting of the Air & Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, PA, June 2002.  Available here.

38. Abdel-Aziz, A., and H.C. Frey, “Quantification of Variability and Uncertainty in Hourly NOx Emissions from Coal-Fired Power Plants,” Proceedings, Annual Meeting of the Air & Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, PA, June 2002.  Available here.

39. Unal, A., H.C. Frey, N.M. Rouphail, and J.D. Colyar, “Hot Spot Analysis of Real-World Vehicle Emissions Based Upon a Portable On-Board Measurement System,” Proceedings, Annual Meeting of the Air & Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, PA, June 2002.  Available here.

40. Zheng, J., and H.C. Frey, “Development of a Software Module for Statistical Analysis of Variability and Uncertainty,” Proceedings, Annual Meeting of the Air & Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, PA, June 2002.  Available here.

41. Unal, A., N.M. Rouphail, and H.C. Frey, “Effect of Arterial Signalization and Level of Service on Measured Vehicle Emissions,” TRB Paper No. 03-2884, Proceedings, 82nd Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, January 12-16, 2003.

42. Zhao, Y., and H.C. Frey, “Quantification of Uncertainty and Variability for Air Toxic Emission Factor Data Sets Containing Non-Detects,”  Proceedings, Annual Meeting of the Air & Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, PA, June 2003.  Available here.

43. Abdel-Aziz, A. and H.C. Frey, “Quantification of Hourly Variability in Hourly Activity and NOx Emissions for Baseload Coal-Fired Power Plants,” Proceedings, Annual Meeting of the Air & Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, PA, June 2003.  Available here.

44. Frey,  H.C., A. Unal, J. Chen, and S. Li, “Modeling Mobile Source Emissions Based Upon In-Use and Second-by-Second Data:  Development of Conceptual Approaches for EPA’s New MOVES Model,” Proceedings, Annual Meeting of the Air & Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, PA, June 2003.  Available here.

45. Zheng, J., and H.C. Frey, “Windows-Based Software Implementation and Uncertainty Analysis of the EPA SHEDS/Pesticides Model,” Proceedings, Annual Meeting of the Air & Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, PA, June 2003.

46. Zhao, Y., and H.C. Frey, “Development of Probabilistic Emission Inventory of Air Toxics for Jacksonville, FL,” Proceedings, Annual Meeting of the Air & Waste Management Association, June 22-25, 2004, Indianapolis, IN, published by Air & Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, PA, June 2004.  Available here.

47. Hanna, A., J. Vukovich, S. Arunachalam, D. Loughlin, H.C. Frey, J. Touma, J. Irwin, and V. Isakov, “Assessment of Uncertainty in Benzene Concentration Estimates in the Houston, TX, Area,” Proceedings, Annual Meeting of the Air & Waste Management Association, June 22-25, 2004, Indianapolis, IN, published by Air & Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, PA, June 2004.  Available here.

48. Hanna, S.R., D. Heinold, R. Paine, H.C. Frey, D. Baker, R. Karp, and H. Feldman, “A Monte Carlo Study of the Uncertainties in Predictions by ISC3ST and AERMOD of Annual Average Benzene and 1,3-Butadiene Concentrations around the Houston Ship Channel,” Proceedings, Annual Meeting of the Air & Waste Management Association, June 22-25, 2004, Indianapolis, IN, published by Air & Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, PA, June 2004.  Available here.

49. Frey, H.C., and K. Kim, “In-Use Emissions of Heavy-Duty Diesel Dump Trucks on Petroleum Diesel and B20 Biodiesel Fuels,” Proceedings, Annual Meeting of the Air & Waste Management Association, June 20-23, 2005, Minneapolis, MN.

50. Zhang, K., and H.C. Frey, “Road Grade Estimation for On-Road Vehicle Emissions Modeling Using LIDAR Data,” Proceedings, Annual Meeting of the Air & Waste Management Association, June 20-23, 2005, Minneapolis, MN.  Available here.

51. Frey, H.C., and K. Kim, “Comparison of Real-World Fuel Use and Emissions for Dump Trucks Fueled with B20 Biodiesel Versus Petroleum Diesel,” Paper 06-1078, 2006 Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, January 2006.  Available here.

52. Frey, H.C., N.M. Rouphail, and H. Zhai, “Speed- and Facility-Specific Emission Estimates for On-Road Light-Duty Vehicles based on Real-World Speed Profiles,” Paper 06-1096, 2006 Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, January 2006.  Available here.

53. Frey, H.C., “Incorporating Risk and Uncertainty into the Assessment of Impacts of Global Climate Change on Transportation Systems,” Proceedings, 2nd Workshop on Impacts of Global Climate Change On Hydraulics and Hydrology and Transportation, Center for Transportation and the Environment, NC State, held in Washington, DC, March 29, 2006.

54. Kim, K., S. Abolhasani, S.H. Pang, and H.C. Frey, “Real-world Data Collection Procedure for Non-road Construction Equipment:  Problems, Solutions, and Data Quality Assurance,” Paper No. 548, Proceedings, Annual Meeting of the Air & Waste Management Association, New Orleans, LA, June 20-23, 2006.

55. Zhai, H., H.C. Frey, and N.M. Rouphail, “Speed- and Facility-Specific Emissions Estimates for Transit Buses based on Measured Speed Profiles,” Paper No. 195, Proceedings, Annual Meeting of the Air & Waste Management Association, New Orleans, LA, June 20-23, 2006.

56. Rouphail, N.M., H.C. Frey, and H. Zhai, “Measuring the Effect of Level of Service on Vehicle Emissions,” Fifth International Symposium on Highway Capacity and Quality of Service, Transportation Research Board, Yokohama, Japan, July 25-29, 2006.

57. Rouphail, N.M, and H.C. Frey, “Advances in Measuring and Modeling Traffic Impacts on Vehicle Emissions: An Overview,” Proceedings, Seventh International Congress on Advances in Civil Engineering, Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey, October 11-13, 2006.

58. Zhai, H., H.C. Frey, N.M. Rouphail, G.A. Gonçalves, and T.L. Farias, “Fuel Consumption and Emissions Comparisons between Ethanol 85 and Gasoline Fuels for Flexible Fuel Vehicles,” Paper No. 2007-AWMA-444, Proceedings, 100th Annual Meeting of the Air & Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, PA, June 26-28, 2007.  Available here.

59. Frey, H.C., and K. Zhang, “Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Real-World Empirical Fuel Use and Emissions,” Paper No. 2007-AWMA-285, Proceedings, 100th Annual Meeting of the Air & Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, PA, June 26-28, 2007.  Available here.

60. Frey, H.C., and P.Y. Kuo, “Potential Best Practices for Reducing Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions in Freight Transportation,” Paper No. 2007-AWMA-443, Proceedings, 100th Annual Meeting of the Air & Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, PA, June 26-28, 2007.  Available here.

61. Frey, H.C., W. Rasdorf, S.-H. Pang, K. Kim, S. Abolhasani, and P. Lewis, “Methodology for Activity, Fuel Use, and Emissions Data Collection and Analysis for Nonroad Construction Equipment,” Paper No. 2007-AWMA-447, Proceedings, 100th Annual Meeting of the Air & Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, PA, June 26-28, 2007.  Available here.

62. Zhai, H., H.C. Frey, and N.M. Rouphail, “Impact of Alternative Vehicle Technologies on Vehicle Emissions,” Transportation Land Use, Planning, and Air Quality 2007, Orlando, FL, July 9-11, 2007.

63. Frey, H.C., W.J. Rasdorf, K. Kim, S.H. Pang, P. Lewis, “Comparison of Real-World Emissions of Backhoes, Front-End Loaders and Motor Graders for B20 Biodiesel vs. Petroleum Diesel for Selected Engine Tiers,” Proceedings, 87th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, January 13-17, 2008.  Available here.

64. Frey, H.C., P.Y. Kuo, and C. Villa, “Methodology for Characterization of Long-Haul Truck Idling Activity under Real-World Conditions,” Proceedings, 87th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, January 13-17, 2008.

65. Frey, H.C., N.M. Rouphail, and H. Zhai, “Link-Based Emission Factors for Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks Based on Real-World Data,” Proceedings, 87th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, January 13-17, 2008.  Available here.

66. Zheng, J., and H.C. Frey, “Treatment of Censored Data and Dependency Among Sampling Distributions in Probabilistic Human Health Exposure Assessment,” in Advances in Studies on Risk Analysis and Crisis Response, C. Huang, C. Frey, and J. Feng, eds., Atlantis Press:  Paris, France, 2007, pp. 802-808.  (Proceedings of 1st International Conference on Risk Assessment and Crisis Response, Shanghai, China, September 25-26, 2007).  Available here.

67. Frey, H.C., W. Rasdorf, S.-H. Pang, K. Kim, S. Abolhasani, and P. Lewis, “Vehicle-Specific Emissions Modeling For Non-Road Construction Vehicles Based Upon Real-World Measurements,” Paper No. 569, Proceedings, 101st Annual Meeting of the Air & Waste Management Association, Portland, OR, June 24-27, 2008.

68. Frey, H.C., Kim, S. Pang, W. Rasdorf, P. Lewis, “Characterization of Real-World Activity, Fuel Use and Emissions for Selected Motor Graders Fueled with Petroleum Diesel and B20 Biodiesel,” Paper No. 607, Proceedings, 101st Annual Meeting of the Air & Waste Management Association, Portland, OR, June 24-27, 2008.

69. Frey, H.C., P.Y. Kuo, and C. Villa, “Measurement and Modeling of Fuel Use and Exhaust Emissions from Idling Long-Haul Freight Truck and Auxiliary Power Unit Engines, Paper No. 616, Proceedings, 101st Annual Meeting of the Air & Waste Management Association, Portland, OR, June 24-27, 2008.

70. Frey, H.C., and H.W. Choi, “Estimating Light Duty Gasoline Vehicle Emission Factors at High Transient and Constant Speeds for Short Road Segments to Support Near-Roadway Air Quality Studies,” Paper No. 625, Proceedings, 101st Annual Meeting of the Air & Waste Management Association, Portland, OR, June 24-27, 2008.

71. Frey, H.C., H. Zhai, N. Rouphail, G. Gonçalves, T. Farias, “Fuel Consumption and Tailpipe Emissions Comparisons between Ethanol 85 and Gasoline Fuels for Flexible Fuel Vehicles,” Paper No. 637, Proceedings, 101st Annual Meeting of the Air & Waste Management Association, Portland, OR, June 24-27, 2008.

72. Lewis, P., H.C. Frey, W.J. Rasdorf, “Development and Use of Emissions Inventories for Construction Vehicles,” Proceedings, 88th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, January 2009.

73. Frey, H.C., H. Zhai, and N.M. Rouphail, “Regional On-Road Vehicle Running Emissions Modeling and Evaluation for Conventional and Alternative Vehicle Technologies, Proceedings, 88th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, January 2009.

74. Deshpande, B., H.C. Frey, Y. Cao, and Z. Liu, “Modeling of the Penetration of Ambient PM2.5 to Indoor Residential Microenvironment,” Paper 2009-A-86-AWMA, Proceedings, 102nd Annual Conference and Exhibition, Air & Waste Management Association, Detroit, Michigan, June 16-19, 2009.  Available here.

75. Frey, H.C., and B. Hubbell, “A Risk-based Assessment And Management Framework For Multipollutant Air Quality,” Paper 2009-A-235-AWMA, Proceedings, 102nd Annual Conference and Exhibition, Air & Waste Management Association, Detroit, Michigan, June 16-19, 2009.  Available here.

76. Liu, Z., H.C. Frey, Y. Cao, and B. Deshpande, “Modeling of In-vehicle PM2.5 Exposure Using the Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation Model,” Paper 2009-A-238-AWMA, Proceedings, 102nd Annual Conference and Exhibition, Air & Waste Management Association, Detroit, Michigan, June 16-19, 2009.  Available here.

77. Cao, Y., H.C. Frey, Z. Liu, and B. Deshpande, “Evaluation of the Modeling of Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) in the SHEDS-PM Model,” Paper 2009-A-239-AWMA, Proceedings, 102nd Annual Conference and Exhibition, Air & Waste Management Association, Detroit, Michigan, June 16-19, 2009.  Available here.

78. Frey, H.C., H.W. Choi, E. Pritchard, and J. Lawrence, “In-Use Measurement of the Activity, Energy Use, and Emissions of a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle,” Paper 2009-A-242-AWMA, Proceedings, 102nd Annual Conference and Exhibition, Air & Waste Management Association, Detroit, Michigan, June 16-19, 2009.  Available here.

79. Frey, H.C., H.W. Choi, and K. Kim, “Measurement of the Energy Use and Emissions of Passenger Rail Locomotives Using a Portable Emission Measurement System,” Paper 2009-A-243-AWMA, Proceedings, 102nd Annual Conference and Exhibition, Air & Waste Management Association, Detroit, Michigan, June 16-19, 2009.  Available here.

80. Graver, B., and H.C. Frey, “Estimation of Air Carrier Emissions at Raleigh-Durham International Airport,” Paper 2009-A-486-AWMA, Proceedings, 102nd Annual Conference and Exhibition, Air & Waste Management Association, Detroit, Michigan, June 16-19, 2009.  Available here.

81. Choi, H.W., and H.C. Frey, “Estimating Diesel Vehicle Emission Factors at Constant and High Speeds for Short Road Segments,” Paper 10-0382, Proceedings, 89th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, January 2010.  (accepted for presentation and publication).

82. Graver, B., and H.C. Frey, “Estimation of Per Seat and Per Passenger Air Carrier Emissions at Raleigh-Durham International Airport,” Paper TRB 10-1417, Proceedings, 89th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, January 2010 (accepted for presentation).

83. Frey, H.C., W. Rasdorf, P. Lewis, “Results of a Comprehensive Study of Fuel Use and Emissions of Nonroad Diesel Construction Equipment,” Paper TRB 10-2763, Proceedings, 89th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, January 2010 (accepted for presentation and publication).

84. Coelho, M.C., J. Andrade, D. Soares, H.C. Frey, and N.M. Rouphail, “A Vehicle Energy Use and Safety Information Support System,” Paper TRB 10-3034, Proceedings, 89th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, January 2010 (accepted for presentation).

85. Liu, X., H.C. Frey, and Y. Cao, “Estimation of In-Vehicle Concentration and Human Exposure for PM2.5 Based on Near Roadway Ambient Air Quality and Variability in Vehicle Operation,” Paper TRB 10-3564, Proceedings, 89th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, January 2010 (submitted 8/1/09, revised and resubmitted October 2009).

86. Liu, X., Y. Cao, and H.C. Frey, “Quantifying Human Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter Inside a Vehicle,” Paper 2010-A-975-AWMA, Proceedings, 103rd Annual Conference and Exhibition, Air & Waste Management Association, Calgary, Canada, June 2010.

87. Frey, H.C., H.W. Choi, B.M. Graver, and G.S. Sandhu, “Comparative Assessment of Passenger Railroad Locomotives Using Portable Emission Measurement Systems,” Paper 2010-A-970-AWMA, Proceedings, 103rd Annual Conference and Exhibition, Air & Waste Management Association, Calgary, Canada, June 2010.

88. B.M. Graver, and H.C. Frey, Quantifying the Microscale Activity, Energy Use, and Emissions of a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Based on In-Use Data,” Paper 2010-A-946-AWMA, Proceedings, 103rd Annual Conference and Exhibition, Air & Waste Management Association, Calgary, Canada, June 2010.

89. Lewis, P., M. Leming, H.C. Frey, and W. Rasdorf, “Assessing the Effects of Operational Efficiency on Pollutant Emissions of Nonroad Diesel Construction Equipment,” TRB 11-3186, Proceedings, 90th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, January 2011(accepted for presentation).

90. Zhai, H., H.C. Frey, and N.M. Rouphail, “Development of A Modal Emissions Model for A Hybrid Electric Vehicle,” TRB 11-1190, Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, January 2011.

91. Frey, H.C., G. Sandhu, Y. Sun, T. Lee, H. Swidan, B. Liu, and S. Babaee, “Incorporating Vehicle Portable Emissions Measurement Systems Into the Classroom,” 2011-A-146-AWMA, Proceedings, 104th Annual Meeting of the Air & Waste Management Association, Orlando, FL, June 21-24, 2011.

92. Jiao, W., and H.C. Frey, “Inter-individual, Geographic, and Seasonal Variability in Human Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter,” 2011-A-176-AWMA, Proceedings, 104th Annual Meeting of the Air & Waste Management Association, Orlando, FL, June 21-24, 2011.

93. Sun, Y., and H.C. Frey, “Comparison of Real-world Activity, Fuel Use, and Emissions for Selected Light Duty Gasoline Vehicles Based on Driving Cycles,” 2011-A-306-AWMA, Proceedings, 104th Annual Meeting of the Air & Waste Management Association, Orlando, FL, June 21-24, 2011.

94. Lee, T., and H.C. Frey, “Variability in Gram Per Gallon Vehicle Emission Factors With Engine Load and Among Driving Cycles,” 2011-A-328-AWMA, Proceedings, 104th Annual Meeting of the Air & Waste Management Association, Orlando, FL, June 21-24, 2011.

95. Liu, X., and H.C. Frey, “Apportionment of Human Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter Among Indoor and Outdoor Emission Sources and Processes,” 2011-A-365-AWMA, Proceedings, 104th Annual Meeting of the Air & Waste Management Association, Orlando, FL, June 21-24, 2011.

96. Graver, B.M., and H.C. Frey, “Fuel Use and Emission Rates for F59PH Locomotive Engines Tested on an Engine Dynamometer,” 2011-A-586-AWMA, Proceedings, 104th Annual Meeting of the Air & Waste Management Association, Orlando, FL, June 21-24, 2011.

97. Graver, B.M., and H.C. Frey, “Modeling of Hybrid and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Energy Use and Emissions Based on In-Use Measurement,” 2011-A-590-AWMA, Proceedings, 104th Annual Meeting of the Air & Waste Management Association, Orlando, FL, June 21-24, 2011.

98. Liu, B., and H.C. Frey, “Comparison of Driving Schedule Project Level MOVES Emission Factors to Empirical Data,” 2011-A-645-AWMA, Proceedings, 104th Annual Meeting of the Air & Waste Management Association, Orlando, FL, June 21-24, 2011.

99. Frey, H.C., and S. Pierce, “Comparison of the Performance, Emissions, and Cost of Fossil-Fuel Combustion and Gasification Based "Zero Emissions" Power Plant Designs,” 2011-A-646-AWMA, Proceedings, 104th Annual Meeting of the Air & Waste Management Association, Orlando, FL, June 21-24, 2011.

100.      Frey, H.C., H.W. Choi, and K. Kim, “Measurement of Emissions of Passenger Rail Locomotives Using a Portable Emissions Measurement System,” 12-0739, Proceedings, Annual Meeting, Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC,  January 2012.

101.      Sandhu, G.S., and H.C. Frey, “Real-World Measurement and Evaluation of Heavy Duty Truck Duty Cycles, Fuels, and Emission Control Technologies,” 12-4674, Proceedings, Annual Meeting, Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC,  January 2012.

102.      Lewis, P., W. Rasdorf, M. Leming, and H.C. Frey, “Effects of Engine Idling on NAAQS Criteria Pollutant Emissions from Nonroad Diesel Construction Equipment,” 12-0219, Proceedings, Annual Meeting, Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC,  January 2012.

103.      Jiao, W., and H.C. Frey, "Characterization of PM2.5 Concentration in Indoor Residential Microenvironments," 2012-A-262-AWMA, Proceedings, Annual Meeting of the Air & Waste Management Association, San Antonio, TX, June 19-22, 2012.

104.      Graver, B.M., and H.C. Frey, "Estimation of Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicle Emissions Avoided by Passenger Rail Service in North Carolina," 2012-A-270-AWMA, Proceedings, Annual Meeting of the Air & Waste Management Association, San Antonio, TX, June 19-22, 2012.

105.      Liu, B., and H.C. Frey, "Development and Evaluation of a Simplified Version of MOVES for Coupling with a Traffic Simulation Model," 2012-A-645-AWMA, Proceedings, Annual Meeting of the Air & Waste Management Association, San Antonio, TX, June 19-22, 2012.

106.      Yazdani, B., and H.C. Frey, "Quantification of Road Grade Based on GPS Receiver with Barometric Altimeter," 2012-A-262-AWMA, Proceedings, Annual Meeting of the Air & Waste Management Association, San Antonio, TX, June 19-22, 2012.

107.      Liu, B., and H.C. Frey, “Development and Evaluation of a Simplified Version of MOVES for Coupling with a Traffic Simulation Model,” Paper 13-1201, Proceedings of 92nd Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, January 13-17, 2013. 

108.      Graver, B.M., and H.C. Frey, “Comparison of Locomotive Emissions Measured during Dynamometer versus Rail Yard Engine Load Tests,” Paper 13-1415, Proceedings of 92nd Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, January 13-17, 2013. 

109.      Yazdani, B., and H.C. Frey, “Quantifying Road Grade Based on In-Vehicle Measurements with Global Positioning System Receivers,” Paper 13-1417, Proceedings of 92nd Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, January 13-17, 2013. 

110.      Jiao, W., and H.C. Frey, “Method for Measuring the Ratio of In-Vehicle to Near-Vehicle Exposure Concentrations of Airborne Fine Particles,” Paper 13-1518, Proceedings of 92nd Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, January 13-17, 2013. 

111.      Sandhu, G.S., and H.C. Frey, “ Effects of Errors on Vehicle Emission Rates from Portable Emissions Measurement Systems,” Paper 13-4018, Proceedings of 92nd Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, January 13-17, 2013. 

112.      Anya, A.R., N.M. Rouphail, H.C. Frey, and B. Liu, “Method and Case Study for Quantifying Local Emissions Impacts of a Transportation Improvement Project Involving Road Re-Alignment and Conversion to a Multi-Lane Roundabout,” Paper 13-5243, Proceedings of 92nd Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, January 13-17, 2013. 

113.      Salamati, K., M.C. Coelho, P.J. Fernandes, N.M. Rouphail, H.C. Frey, and J. Bandeira, “Emission Estimation at Multilane Roundabouts: Effect of Movement and Approach Lane,” Paper 13-0420, Proceedings of 92nd Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, January 13-17, 2013. 

114.      Frey, H.C., B. Yazdani-Boroujeni, B. Liu, J. Hu, and W. Jiao, “Field Measurements of 1996 to 2013 Model Year Light Duty Gasoline Vehicles,” Proceedings,  106th Annual Conference, Air & Waste Management Association, Chicago, IL, June 25-28, 2013. 

115.      Frey, H.C., B. Yazdani-Boroujeni, J. Hu, and B. Liu, “Contribution of Cold-Starts to Real-World Total Trip Emissions for Light Duty Gasoline Vehicles,” 106th Annual Conference, Air & Waste Management Association, Chicago, IL, June 25-28, 2013. 

116.      Graver, B.M., and H.C. Frey, “Measurement of Locomotive Emissions During Real-World Duty Cycles,” Proceedings,  106th Annual Conference, Air & Waste Management Association, Chicago, IL, June 25-28, 2013. 

117.      Hu, J., H.C. Frey, G.S. Sandhu, and B.M. Graver, “Modeling Driving Cycle, Fuel Use, and Emissions based on Real-World Measurements of Over-Snow Vehicles,” 106th Annual Conference, Air & Waste Management Association, Chicago, IL, June 25-28, 2013. 

118.      Jiao, W., and H.C. Frey, “Comparison of Predicted Exposures Versus Ambient Fine Particulate Matter Concentrations,” 106th Annual Conference, Air & Waste Management Association, Chicago, IL, June 25-28, 2013. 

119.      Liu, B., and H.C. Frey, “Development of a Simplified Version of MOVES and Application to Iterative Case Studies,” 106th Annual Conference, Air & Waste Management Association, Chicago, IL, June 25-28, 2013. 

120.      Sandhu, G.S., and H.C. Frey, “Comparison of Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel and Biodiesel Blends for Energy Consumption and Emissions from In-use Nonroad Earthmoving Equipment,” 106th Annual Conference, Air & Waste Management Association, Chicago, IL, June 25-28, 2013. 

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CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS PAPERS (OTHER)

1.   Frey, H.C., E.S. Rubin, and J.S. Salmento, “Evaluation of the Fluidized Bed Copper Oxide Process Using A Probabilistic Engineering Model,” Proceedings of the Sixth Annual International Pittsburgh Coal Conference, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 1989, pp. 356-365.

2.   Diwekar, U.M., E.S. Rubin, and H.C. Frey, “Stochastic Modeling of Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle Systems Using ASPEN,” Proceedings of the Sixth Annual International Pittsburgh Coal Conference, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 1989, pp. 837-846.

3.   Rubin, E.S., J.S. Salmento, and H.C. Frey, “Development and Application of the Integrated Environmental Control Model,” Proceedings, Sixth Annual Coal Preparation, Utilization, and Environmental Control Contractors Conference, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, August 1990, pp. 375-382.

4.   Frey, H.C., E.S. Rubin, and U.M. Diwekar, “Modeling Uncertainties in IGCC System Performance and Cost,” Proceedings of the Seventh Annual International Pittsburgh Coal Conference, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 1990, pp. 805-814.

5.   Diwekar, U.M., H.C. Frey, and E.S. Rubin, “Stochastic Modeling of Chemical Processes,” Paper 216e presented at the American Institute of Chemical Engineers 1990 Annual Meeting, Chicago, Illinois, November 11-16, 1990.

6.   Rubin, E.S., H.C. Frey, and U.M. Diwekar, “Characterizing Uncertainties in IGCC System Performance and Cost,” Proceedings of the Eleventh Annual Gasification and Gas Stream Cleanup Systems Contractors Review Meeting, Volume 1, DOE/METC-91/6123 (DE92001101), U.S. Department of Energy, Morgantown, West Virginia, August 1991, pp. 66-75.  Available here.

7.   Frey, H.C., and E.S. Rubin, “Modeling IGCC Performance, Emissions, and Cost Using Probabilistic Engineering Models,” Proceedings of the Eighth Annual International Pittsburgh Coal Conference, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, October, 1991.

8.   Frey, H.C., E.S. Rubin, and U.M. Diwekar, “Process Modeling of Advanced Technologies Under Uncertainty,” Paper No. 58a presented at the American Institute of Chemical Engineers 1992 Spring National Meeting, New Orleans, Louisiana, March 29 - April 2, 1992.

9.   Frey, H.C., and E.S. Rubin, “Evaluate Uncertainties in Advanced Process Technologies,” Chemical Engineering Progress, 88(5):63-70 (May 1992).

10. Rubin, E.S., H.C. Frey, and M.B. Berkenpas, “Development of the Integrated Environmental Control Model,” Proceedings, Eighth Annual Coal Preparation, Utilization, and Environmental Control Contractor's Conference, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, July 27-30, 1992, pp. 619-626.

11. Frey, H.C., “Quantitative Analysis of Uncertainty and Variability in Environmental Policy Making,” 1992 Environmental Science and Engineering Fellows Program Reports, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC, 1993, pp. 25-33.

12. Berkenpas, M.B., E.S. Rubin, H.C. Frey, and B. Toole-O'Neil, “Modeling Air Toxics Emissions From Electric Power Plants,” Proceedings of the 1993 AWMA/EPRI/ASME International Symposium on Integrated Energy and Environmental Management, Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, PA, March 1993, pp. 275-285.

13. Rubin, E.S., M.B. Berkenpas, and H.C. Frey, “Development of the Integrated Environmental Control Model,” Proceedings, Ninth Annual Coal Preparation, Utilization, and Environmental Control Contractor's Conference, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, July 19-22, 1993, pp. 447-454.  Full conference proceedings available.

14. Shih, J.S, and H.C. Frey, “Coal Blending Optimization Under Uncertainty,” Proceedings of the Tenth Annual International Pittsburgh Coal Conference, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, September, 1993, pp. 1110-1115.  Available here.

15. Frey, H.C., “Economic Model of the Fluidized Bed Copper Oxide Process for SO2/NOx Control,” Proceedings of the Tenth Annual International Pittsburgh Coal Conference, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, September, 1993, pp. 597-602.

16. Frey, H.C., “Engineering-Economic Evaluation of SCR NOx Control Systems for Coal-Fired Power Plants,” Proceedings of the American Power Conference, Vol. 57-II, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois, April 1995, pp. 1583-1588.  Available here.

17. Diwekar, U.M, E.S. Rubin, and H.C. Frey, “Optimization of Environmental Control System Design for an IGCC Power Plant,” Proceedings of the American Power Conference, Vol. 58-I, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois, April 1996, pp. 58-63.  Abstract.

18. Frey, H.C., and P. Agarwal, “Probabilistic Analysis and Optimization of New Power Generation Technologies:  A Case Study for the Externally-Fired Combined Cycle,” Proceedings of the American Power Conference, Vol. 58-I, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois, April 1996, pp. 52-57.  Available here.

19. Diwekar, U.M., E.S. Rubin and H.C. Frey, “Optimal Design of Advanced Power Systems Under Uncertainty,” Proceedings of ECOS '96 International Symposium—Efficiency, Costs, Optimization, Simulation, and Environmental Aspects of Energy Systems, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden, June 1996.

20. Frey, H.C., and Z. Iwanski, “Probabilistic Modeling of Gasification Repowering for an Oil Refinery in Poland,” Conference Proceedings, POWER-GEN ‘97 Europe, Volume III (held June 17-19 in Madrid, Spain), Pennwell:  The Netherlands, June 1997, pp. 417-435.

21. Frey, H.C., and Z. Iwanski, “Methods for Characterizing and Managing Technological Risks in Advanced Power Generation Systems:  Application to Gasification Repowering in Poland,” in 1997 Gasification Technologies Conference (held October 5-8 in San Francisco, CA), EV-107922, Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, California, October 1997.  Available here.

22. Rhodes, D.S., and H.C. Frey, “Quantification of Variability and Uncertainty in AP-42 Emission Factors Using Bootstrap Simulation,” Emission Inventory:  Planning for the Future (held October 28-30 in Research Triangle Park, NC), Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, October 1997, pp. 147-161.  Available here.

23. Frey, H.C., “Variability and Uncertainty in Highway Vehicle Emission Factors,” Emission Inventory:  Planning for the Future (held October 28-30 in Research Triangle Park, NC), Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, October 1997, pp. 208-219.  Available here.

24. Frey, H.C., R. Bharvirkar, R. Thompson, and S. Bromberg, “Quantification of Variability and Uncertainty in Emission Factors and Inventories,” Conference on the Emission Inventory, Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, December 1998.  Available here.

25. Frey, H.C., M.A. Barlaz, M. Pickett, and S. Vaswani, "New Methods for Assessment of Pollution Prevention Technologies:  Integration of Probabilistic Process Modeling and Design; Life Cycle Analysis; and Regional Environmental Benefits Assessment," Proceedings of the NSF Design and Manufacturing Research Conference, Vancouver, Canada, January 3-6, 2000.  (see subsequent papers for more recent versions).

26. Frey, H.C., N. Rouphail, A. Unal, and J. Colyar, "Emissions and Traffic Control:  An Empirical Approach," Presented at CRC On-Road Vehicle Emissions Workshop, Coordinating Research Council, San Diego, CA, March 27-29, 2000.  Available here.

27. Frey, H.C., M.A. Barlaz, M. Pickett, and S. Vaswani, C. Xie, and M. Li, "New Methods for Assessment of Pollution Prevention Technologies:  Integration of Probabilistic Process Modeling and Design; Life Cycle Analysis; and Regional Environmental Benefits Assessment," Proceedings of the NSF Design, Manufacturing, and Industrial Innovation Research Conference, Tampa, FL, January 7-10, 2001.  Available here.

28. Frey, H.C., M.A. Barlaz, M. Li, and C. Xie, "New Methods for Assessment of Pollution Prevention Technologies:  Integration of Probabilistic Process Modeling and Design; Life Cycle Analysis; and Regional Environmental Benefits Assessment," Proceedings of the NSF Design, Manufacturing, and Industrial Innovation Research Conference, San Juan, Puerto Rico, January, 2002.   Available here.

29. Hanna, S.R., J. Wilkinson, A. Russell, J. Vukovich, H.C. Frey, “Estimating Uncertainties of Air Quality Modeling Systems Using Monte Carlo Approaches,” Proceedings, AMS Norfolk Conference, Norfolk, VA, May 2002.

30. Frey, H.C. and J. Zheng, “Method for Development of Probabilistic Emission Inventories: Example Case Study for Utility NOx Emissions,” Proceedings, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Emission Inventory Conference, Atlanta, GA, April 2002.  Available at EPA website.

31. Frey, H.C. and Y. Zhao, “Quantification of Variability and Uncertainty in Air Toxic Emission Factors When Data Contains Non-Detected Values,” Proceedings, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Emission Inventory Conference, Atlanta, GA, April 2002.  Available at EPA website.

32. Frey, H.C., and S. Bammi, “Quantification of Variability and Uncertainty for Selected Nonroad Mobile Source Emission Factors,” Proceedings, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Emission Inventory Conference, Atlanta, GA, April 2002.  Available at EPA website.

33. Frey, H.C., A. Unal, N.M. Rouphail, and J.D. Colyar, “Use of Onboard Tailpipe Emissions Measurements for Development of Mobile Source Emission Factors,” Proceedings, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Emission Inventory Conference, Atlanta, GA, April 2002.  Available at EPA website.

34. Frey, H.C., and S. Li, “Methods for Quantifying Variability and Uncertainty in AP-42 Emission Factors: Case Studies for Natural Gas-Fueled Engines,” Proceedings, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Emission Inventory Conference, Atlanta, GA, April 2002.  Available at EPA website.

35. Frey, H.C., M.A. Barlaz, and M. Li, "New Methods for Assessment of Pollution Prevention Technologies," Proceedings of the NSF Design, Manufacturing, and Industrial Innovation Research Conference, Birmingham, AL, January, 2003.  Available here.

36. Frey, H.C., A. Unal, J. Chen, and S. Li, “Evaluation and Recommendation of a Modal Method for Modeling Vehicle Emissions,” Proceedings, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Emission Inventory Conference, San Diego, CA, April 2003. Available at EPA website.

37. Houyoux, M., D.H. Loughlin, A.P. Holland, H.C. Frey, and A. Abdel-Aziz, “Design, Application, and Recommendations for Including Inventory Uncertainties in Emission Inventory Preparation for ModelingProceedings, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Emission Inventory Conference, San Diego, CA, April 2003. Available at EPA website.

38. Frey, H.C., N.M. Rouphail, and K. Kim, “Operational Evaluation of In-Use Emissions and Fuel Consumption of B20 versus Diesel-Fueled Heavy Duty Vehicles,” Proceedings, On-Road Vehicle Emissions Workshop, held March 29-31, 2004, San Diego, CA, published by Coordinating Research Council, Atlanta, GA. 

39. Frey, H.C., and Y. Zhao, “Development of Probabilistic Emission Inventories of Air Toxics for an Urban Area,” Proceedings, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Emission Inventory Conference, Clearwater, FL, June 2004.  Available at EPA website.

40. Hanna, S.R., R. Paine, D. Heinold, E. Kintigh, H.C. Frey, D. Baker, and R. Karp, “Uncertainties in Benzene and 1,3-Butadiene Emissions in Houston and their effects on Uncertainties in Concentrations Calculated by AERMOD and ISC,” Proceedings, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Emission Inventory Conference, Clearwater, FL, June 2004.  Available at EPA website

41. Frey, H.C., and K. Zhang, “Implications of Measured In-Use Light Duty Gasoline Vehicle Emissions for Emission Inventory Development at High Spatial and Temporal Resolution,” Proceedings, International Emission Inventory Conference, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Raleigh, NC, May 15-17, 2007.  Available here.

42. Frey, H.C., and P.Y. Kuo, “Assessment of Potential Reduction in Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions in Freight Transportation,” Proceedings, International Emission Inventory Conference, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Raleigh, NC, May 15-17, 2007.  Available here.

43. Frey, H.C., W.J. Rasdorf, S.H. Pang, K. Kim, and P. Lewis, “Methods for Measurement and Analysis of In-Use Emissions of Nonroad Construction Equipment,” Proceedings, International Emission Inventory Conference, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Raleigh, NC, May 15-17, 2007.  Available here.

44. Frey, H.C., “Methods for and Examples of Quantification of Uncertainty in Emission Factors and Inventories,” Proceedings, International Emission Inventory Conference, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Raleigh, NC, May 15-17, 2007.  Available here.

45. Coehlo, M., D.S. Soares, H.C. Frey, “Energy use and greenhouse gases emissions in vehicles: Contrasting alternative fuels, propulsion systems and market policies in Portugal and USA,” Conference on Rethinking Transportation, Louisville, KY, October 2008.

45. Rouphail, N.M., H. Zhai, H.C. Frey, and B. Graver, “Impact of Alternative Vehicle Technologies and Land Use Patterns on Long-Term Regional On-Road Vehicle Emissions,” 12th World Congress on Transportation Research, Lisbon, Portugal, July 11-15, 2010.

 

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TECHNICAL REPORTS

1.     Rubin, E.S., J.S. Salmento, J.G. Barrett, C.N. Bloyd, and H.C. Frey, Modeling and Assessment of Advanced Processes for Integrated Environmental Control of Coal-Fired Power Plants, NTIS DE86014713, Prepared by Carnegie-Mellon University for the U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, July 1986.  See Energy Citations Index for more information.

2.     Frey, H.C., Performance and Economic Model of the Fluidized Bed Copper Oxide Process, Master's Report, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania,  May 1987.

3.     May, P.A., and H.C. Frey, Evaluation of NOx Emission Controls for Load-Following Cogeneration Facilities, Prepared by Radian Corporation for New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, New Jersey, July 1987.

4.     Radian Corporation, Technical Support for Proposed Prevention of Significant Deterioration Rule for Nitrogen Oxides, Volumes 1 and 2., Prepared by Radian Corporation for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, February 1, 1988 (Contributing author). 

5.     Frey, H.C., and C.W. Stackhouse, Jr., "Cost and Cost Effectiveness of Electrostatic Precipitators Applied to Very Low Sulfur Oil-Fired Boilers to Achieve Lower Particulate Matter Emissions," Technical Memorandum from Radian Corporation to W.H. Maxwell, Emissions Standards and Engineering Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, March 9, 1988  

6.     Frey, H.C., J.A. Martinez, and E.F. Aul, "Modifications to Venturi Scrubber Cost Algorithm for Application to Small Coal- and Wood-Fired Boilers," Technical Memorandum from Radian Corporation to W.H. Maxwell, Emissions Standards and Engineering Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, March 11, 1988 

7.     Frey, H.C., and J.T. Waddell, "State Permitting Practices for Particulate Matter Emissions from Small Coal- and Wood-Fired Boilers," Technical Memorandum from Radian Corporation to R.A. Copeland, Emissions Standards and Engineering Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, July 7, 1988.

8.     Abadines, E., et al., Catastrophic Oil Spills on the Great Lakes, Final Report, Department of Engineering and Public Policy, School of Urban and Public Affairs, and Department of Social and Decision Sciences, Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, December 1989, 143p.

9.     Piccot, S.D., J.A. Buzun, and H.C. Frey, Emissions and Cost Estimates for Globally Significant Anthropogenic Combustion Sources of NOx, N2O, CH4, CO, and CO2, EPA/600/7-90-010, Prepared by Radian Corporation for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, May 1990.  Available from NTIS.

10. Frey, H.C. and E.S. Rubin, Stochastic Modeling of Coal Gasification Combined Cycle Systems:  Cost Models of Selected  Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Systems,  Topical Report, DOE/MC/24248-2901, NTIS DE90015345, Prepared by Carnegie-Mellon University for the U.S. Department of Energy, Morgantown, West Virginia, June 1990, 307p. 

11. Rubin, E.S., J.S. Salmento, H.C. Frey, A. Abu-Baker, and M. Berkenpas, Modeling of Integrated Environmental Control Systems for Coal-Fired Power Plants, Final Report, DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-87PC79864, Prepared by Carnegie-Mellon University for the U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, April 1991, 214p.  Available at IECM website.

12. Frey, H.C., and E.S. Rubin, Development and Application of a Probabilistic Evaluation Method for Advanced Process Technologies, Final Report, DOE/MC/24248-3015, NTIS DE91002095, Prepared by Carnegie-Mellon University for the U.S. Department of Energy, Morgantown, West Virginia, April 1991, 364p.  See Energy Citations database for more information and how to order.

13. Frey, H.C., Probabilistic Modeling of Innovative Clean Coal Technologies:  Implications for Research Planning and Technology Evaluation, Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, May 1991.

14. Frey, H.C., Quantitative Analysis of Uncertainty and Variability in Environmental Policy Making, Environmental Science and Engineering Fellows Program, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC, September 1992.  Available here.

15. Frey, H.C., and E.S. Rubin, Development of the Integrated Environmental Control Model:  Performance Models of Selective Catalytic Reduction NOx Control Systems, Quarterly Progress Report, DOE/PC/91346--3, Contract No. DC-AC22-92PC91346, Prepared by Carnegie Mellon University for the U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, July 1993.

16. Frey, H.C., and E.S. Rubin, Development of the Integrated Environmental Control Model:  Cost Models of Selective Catalytic Reduction NOx Control Systems, Quarterly Progress Report, DOE/PC/91346--5, Contract No. DC-AC22-92PC91346, Prepared by Carnegie Mellon University for the U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, December 1993.

17. Frey, H.C., Modeling and Assessment of the Fluidized Bed Copper Oxide Process for SO2/NOx Control, Prepared by North Carolina State University for U.S. Department of Energy, March 30, 1994.

18. Frey, H.C., Development and Application of Performance and Cost Models for Gas Turbine-Based Selective Catalytic Reduction NOx Control, Task 1 Topical Report, Volume 1, Prepared by North Carolina State University for Carnegie Mellon University and U.S. Department of Energy, Morgantown, West Virginia, October 1994 (submitted) July 1995 (publicly released).  Available at U.S. DOE website.

19. Frey, H.C., R.J. Lempert, G. Farnsworth, D.C. Acheson, P.S. Fischbeck, and E.S. Rubin, A Method for Federal Energy Research Planning:  Integrated Consideration of Technologies, Markets, and Uncertainties, Prepared by Carnegie Mellon, RAND, and Atlantic Council for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA.  April 1995.                                                   

20. Agarwal, P, and H.C. Frey, Development and Application of Performance and Cost Models for the Externally-Fired Combined Cycle, Task 1 Topical Report, Volume 2, Prepared by North Carolina State University for Carnegie Mellon University and U.S. Department of Energy, Morgantown, West Virginia, July 1995.  Available at U.S. Department of Energy website.

21. Frey, H.C., and R.B. Williams, Performance and Cost Models for the Direct Sulfur Recovery Process, Task 1 Topical Report, Volume 2, Prepared by North Carolina State University for Carnegie Mellon University and U.S. Department of Energy, Morgantown, West Virginia, September 1995.

22. Frey, H.C., and D.A. Eichenberger, Remote Sensing of Mobile Source Air Pollutant Emissions:  Variability and Uncertainty in On-Road Emissions Estimates of Carbon Monoxide and Hydrocarbons for School and Transit Buses, FHWY/NC/97-005, Prepared by North Carolina State University for North Carolina Department of Transportation, Raleigh, June 1997.  Available here.

23. Kini, M.D., and H.C. Frey, Probabilistic Evaluation of Mobile Source Air Pollution:  Volume 1, Probabilistic Modeling of Exhaust Emissions from Light Duty Gasoline Vehicles, Prepared by North Carolina State University for Center for Transportation and the Environment, Raleigh, December 1997.                                                                                                                              

24. Bharvirkar, R. and H.C. Frey, Development of Simplified Performance and Cost Models of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Systems, Prepared by North Carolina State University for Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, July 1998.

25. Frey, H.C., Estimates of Uncertainty in Air Quality Model Inputs Based Upon Expert Elicitation, Prepared by North Carolina State University for Hanna Consultants, Kennebunkport, Maine, September 28, 1998.                                                                                                   

26. Science Advisory Board, An SAB Report:  Review of the USEPA’s Report to Congress on Residual Risk, Prepared by Residual Risk Subcommittee of the Science Advisory Board for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA-SAB-EC-98-013, September 1998.  (Contributing member of Residual Risk Subcommittee, also contributed pages A-15 to A-51).  Available at EPA SAB website.

27. Eastern Research Group, Report of the Workshop on Selecting Input Distributions for Probabilistic Assessments, Prepared by Eastern Research Group for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, September 1998.  Contributed “Chairperson’s Summary” (wrote Chapter 2 and reviewed/edited other chapters).  Available at EPA website.

28. Frey, H.C., and D.S. Rhodes, Quantitative Analysis of Variability and Uncertainty in Environmental Data and Models:  Volume 1.  Theory and Methodology Based Upon Bootstrap Simulation, Report No. DOE/ER/30250--Vol. 1, Prepared by North Carolina State University for the U.S. Department of Energy, Germantown, MD, April 1999.  Available here.

29. Frey, H.C., and L.K. Tran, Quantitative Analysis of Variability and Uncertainty in Environmental Data and Models:  Volume 2.  Performance, Emissions, and Cost of Combustion-Based NOx Controls for Wall and Tangential Furnace Coal-Fired Power Plants, Report No. DOE/ER/30250--Vol. 2, Prepared by North Carolina State University for the U.S. Department of Energy, Germantown, MD, April 1999.  Available here.

30. Berkenpas, M.B., H.C. Frey, J.J. Fry, J. Kalagnanam, and E.S. Rubin, “Integrated Environmental Control Model:  Technical Documentation,” Prepared by Carnegie Mellon University for U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA.  May 1999.  Available at IECM website.

31. Frey, H.C., R. Bharvirkar, and J. Zheng, Quantitative Analysis of Variability and Uncertainty in Emissions Estimation, Prepared by North Carolina State University for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC.  July 1999.  Available here.

32. Rouphail, N.M., H.C. Frey, A. Unal, and R. Dalton, ITS Integration of Real-Time Emissions and Traffic Management Systems, IDEA Project No. ITS-44, Prepared by North Carolina State University for the IDEA Program, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, DC.  May 2000.  (available upon request, 5.3 MB Adobe PDF file).

33. Frey, H.C., and J. Zheng, User's Guide for Analysis of Uncertainty and Variability in Emissions Estimation (AUVEE), Prepared by North Carolina State University for Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, September 2000.  Available here.  See also related PhD dissertation at NCSU website.

34. Hanna, S., Z. Lu, H.C. Frey, N. Wheeler, J. Vukovich, S. Arunachalam, M. Fernau, and J. Davis, Uncertainties in Predicted Ozone Concentrations due to Input Uncertainties for UAM-V Photochemical Grid Model Applied to the July 1995 OTAG Domain, Report No. 1000710, Prepared by Harvard School of Public Health, North Carolina State University, and MCNC for EPRI, Palo Alto, CA, and Ameren, St. Louis, MO.  November 2000.  Available from EPRI (product ID 1000710).

35. Frey, H.C., and N. Akunuri, "Probabilistic Modeling and Evaluation of the Performance, Emissions, and Cost of Texaco Gasifier-Based Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Systems Using ASPEN," Prepared by North Carolina State University for Carnegie Mellon University and U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA, January 2001.  Available here.

36. Frey, H.C., and J. Zheng, Methods and Example Case Study for Analysis of Variability and Uncertainty in Emissions Estimation (AUVEE), Prepared by North Carolina State University for Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, February 2001.  Available here.

37. Frey, H.C., N.M. Rouphail, A. Unal, and J.D. Colyar, Emissions Reduction Through Better Traffic Management:  An Empirical Evaluation Based Upon On-Road Measurements, FHWY/NC/2002-001, Prepared by North Carolina State University for North Carolina Department of Transportation, December 2001.  323 pp.  Available at NCDOT website.

38. Frey, H.C., A. Unal, and J. Chen, Recommended Strategy for On-Board Emission Data Analysis and Collection for the New Generation Model, Prepared by North Carolina State University for the Office of Transportation and Air Quality, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Ann Arbor, MI.  February 2002.  Available at EPA website.

39. Frey, H.C., J. Zheng, Y. Zhao, S. Li, and Y. Zhu, Technical Documentation of the AuvTool Software for Analysis of Variability and Uncertainty, Prepared by North Carolina State University for the Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC.  February 2002.   Available here.   See also external website for related documents.

40. Zheng, J., and H.C. Frey, AuvTool User’s Guide, Prepared by North Carolina State University for the Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC.  February 2002.  Available here.  See also external website for related documents.

41. Frey, H.C., A. Unal, J. Chen, S. Li, and C. Xuan, Methodology for Developing Modal Emission Rates for EPA’s Multi-Scale Motor Vehicle and Equipment Emission Estimation System, Prepared by North Carolina State University for the Office of Transportation and Air Quality, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Ann Arbor, MI, August 31, 2002.  Available at EPA website.

42. Loughlin, D., H.C. Frey, K. Hanisak, and A. Eyth, “Implementation Requirements for the Development of a Sensitivity/Uncertainty Analysis Tool for MIMS,” Draft, Prepared by Carolina Environmental Program and North Carolina State University for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, May 6, 2003.  Available here.

43. Frey, H.C., “Evaluation of an Approximate Analytical Procedure for Calculating Uncertainty in the Greenhouse Gas Version of the Multi-Scale Motor Vehicle and Equipment Emissions System,” Prepared for Office of Transportation and Air Quality, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Ann Arbor, MI, May 30, 2003.  Available here.

44. Frey, H.C., D. Crawford-Brown, J. Zheng, and D. Loughlin, “Hierarchy of Methods to Characterize Uncertainty:  State of Science of Methods for Describing and Quantifying Uncertainty,” Draft, Prepared for E. H. Pechan and Associates, Inc., Springfield, VA, for submittal to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,  Research Triangle Park, NC, August 12, 2003.  Available here.

45. Frey, H.C., J. Zheng, D. Loughlin and D. Crawford-Brown,, “Hierarchy of Methods to Characterize Uncertainty:  State of Science on Communication of Uncertainty,” Draft, Prepared for E. H. Pechan and Associates, Inc., Springfield, VA, for submittal to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,  Research Triangle Park, NC, August 12, 2003.  Available here.

46. Frey, H.C., A. Mokhtari, and T. Danish, “Evaluation of Selected Sensitivity Analysis Methods Based Upon Applications to Two Food Safety Risk Process Models,” Prepared by North Carolina State University for Office of Risk Assessment and Cost-Benefit Analysis, U.S. Department of Agriculture,  Washington, DC, September 2003.  (www.ce.ncsu.edu/risk/)

47. Frey, H.C., and Y. Zhao, “Development of Probabilistic Emission Inventories of Benzene, Formaldehyde And Chromium for the Houston Domain,” Prepared by North Carolina State University for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, September 2003.  Available here.

48. Frey, H.C., A. Mokhtari, and J. Zheng, “Recommended Practice Regarding Selection, Application, and Interpretation of Sensitivity Analysis Methods Applied to Food Safety Process Risk Models,” Prepared by North Carolina State University for U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC, January 30, 2004.  Report is available at www.ce.ncsu.edu/risk, along with related reports.

49. Frey, H.C., and Y. Zhu, “Documentation of Performance and Cost Models for Simple and Combined Cycle Gas Turbine Systems,” Prepared by North Carolina State University for the U.S. Department of Energy via Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, October 2004.

50. Frey, H.C., and K. Kim, “Operational Evaluation of Emissions and Fuel Use of B20 Versus Diesel Fueled Dump Trucks,” FHWY/NC/2005-07, Prepared by North Carolina State University for North Carolina Department of Transportation, Raleigh, NC, September 2005.  Available at NCDOT website.

51. National Research Council, “Interim Report of the Committee on Changes in New Source Review Programs for Stationary Sources of Air Pollutants,” The National Academies Press, Washington, DC, January 2005 [contributing member of the committee].  Available at NAS website.

52. Mokhtari, A., and H.C. Frey, “Review and Recommendation of Methods for Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis for the Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation (SHEDS) Models, Volume 1:  Review of Available Methods for Conducting Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis in Probabilistic Models,” Draft, Prepared by North Carolina State University for Alion Science and Technology, Inc., Durham, NC, June 30, 2005.  Available here.

53. Mokhtari, A., and H.C. Frey, “Review and Recommendation of Methods for Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis for the Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation (SHEDS) Models, Volume 2:  Evaluation and Recommendation of Methodology for Conducting Sensitivity Analysis in Probabilistic Models,” Draft, Prepared by North Carolina State University for Alion Science and Technology, Inc., Durham, NC, June 30, 2005.  Available here.

54. NARSTO EI Assessment Team, Improving Emission Inventories for Effective Air Quality Management Across North America, A NARSTO Assessment, June 2005.  Co-Chair of the NARSTO Emission Inventory Assessment and Lead Author for Chapter 5:  “Methods for Assessment of Uncertainty and Sensitivity in Inventories.”  Available at NARSTO website.

55. Frey, C., J. Penman, L. Hanle, S. Monni, and S. Ogle, “Uncertainties,” Chapter 3 in Volume 1, General Guidance and Reporting, 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme, Inter-Governmental Panel on Climate Change, Technical Support Unit, Kanagawa, Japan, 2006.  Available at IPCC website.

56. Goodwin, J., M. Woodfield, M. Ibnoaf, M. Kozh, H. Yan, C. Frey, R. Montgomery, T. Pulles, D. Ottinger-Schaeffer, and K. Treanton, “Approaches to Data Collection,” Chapter 2 in Volume 1, General Guidance and Reporting, 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme, Inter-Governmental Panel on Climate Change, Technical Support Unit, Kanagawa, Japan, 2006.  Available at IPCC website.

57. National Research Council, New Source Review for Stationary Sources of Air Pollution, Committee on Changes in New Source Review Programs for Stationary Sources of Air Pollution, The National Academies Press, Washington, DC, 2006 [contributing member of the committee].  Report available at NAS web site.

58. Rubin, E.S., M.B. Berkenpas, H.C. Frey, C. Chen, S. McCoy, and C.J. Zaremsky, Technical Documentation: Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Systems (IGCC) with Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS), Prepared by Carnegie Mellon University (with input from NC State University) for the U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA, May, 2007.  Report available at the Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM) Website. 

59. Frey, H.C., and P.Y. Kuo, Best Practices Guidebook for Greenhouse Gas Reductions in Freight Transportation, Prepared by North Carolina State University for U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC, October 2007.  Available here.

60. Frey, H.C., W.J. Rasdorf, K. Kim, S. Pang, P. Lewis, and S. Abolhasani, “Real-World Duty Cycles and Utilization for Construction Equipment in North Carolina,” HWY-2006-08, Prepared by North Carolina State University for North Carolina Department of Transportation, Raleigh, NC, January 2008. Available at NCDOT website:  Final Report, Appendices.

61. Frey, H.C., and Kangwook Kim, Comparison of Fuel Use and Emissions of B20 Biodiesel Fueled Combination Trucks With Versus Without A Fuel Additive, Prepared by North Carolina State University for North Carolina Department of Transportation, Raleigh, NC, January 7, 2008.

62. Frey, H.C., and Kangwook Kim, Comparison of Biodiesel versus Petroleum Diesel Based On In-Use Measurement of Emissions for Heavy Duty Vehicles:  Vancouver Case Study, Prepared by North Carolina State University for Lafarge North America, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, January 21, 2008.

63. Frey, H.C., and Kangwook Kim, Comparison of Biodiesel versus Petroleum Diesel Based On In-Use Measurement of Emissions for Heavy Duty Vehicles:  Atlanta Case Study, Prepared by North Carolina State University for Lafarge North America, Towson, Maryland, January 21, 2008.

65. Frey, H.C., and H.W. Choi, Baseline Fuel Use and Emissions Rates for Petroleum Diesel Fueled Combination Trucks, TA-2008-09, Prepared by North Carolina State University for North Carolina Department of Transportation, Raleigh, NC, May 28, 2008.

66. Frey, H.C., and H.W. Choi, Baseline Emission Rates for F59 and GP40 Locomotives Operated on Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel, TA-2008-15, Prepared by North Carolina State University for North Carolina Department of Transportation, Raleigh, NC, July 31, 2008.

67. World Health Organisation, Harmonization Project Document No. 6, Part 1:  Guidance Document on Characterizing and Communicating Uncertainty in Exposure Assessment, International Program on Chemical Safety, World Health Organization, and Co-sponsored by International Labour Organization, and the United Nations Environmental Programme, WHO Geneva, Switzerland, 2008.

68. Frey, H.C., and B.M. Graver, “Measurement and Evaluation of Fuels and Technologies for Passenger Rail Service in North Carolina,” Final Report, Research Project No. HWY-2010-12, Prepared by North Carolina State University for North Carolina Department of Transportation, Raleigh, NC, August 2012.

62. Frey, H.C., and G.S. Sandhu, “Comparison of Energy Use and Emissions for Three Wheel-Loaders Operated on Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel, B20 Biodiesel, and B35 Biodiesel,” Prepared by North Carolina State University for Greener by Design, New Brunswick, NJ, September 4, 2012.

63. Frey, H.C., G.S. Sandhu, B.M. Graver, and J. Hu, “Measurement of Fuel Use and Emissions of Over-Snow Vehicles at Yellowstone National Park,” Prepared by North Carolina State University for Louis Berger Group, Denver, CO, September 8, 2012.

64. Frey, H.C., and B.M. Graver, Evaluation of Energy Use and Emissions of Rebuilt Passenger Railroad Locomotives, Draft, Research Project No. HWY-2012-33, Prepared by North Carolina State University for North Carolina Department of Transportation, Raleigh, NC, April 2013.

65. Ray, J.D., G. Bishop, B.G. Schuchmann, C. Frey, G. Sandhu, and B. Graver, Yellowstone Over-Snow Vehicle Emission Tests – 2012:  Summary Vehicle Data and Fleet Estimates for Modeling.  Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/NRSS/ARD/NRTR-2013/661, Prepared by National Park Service, University of Denver, and North Carolina State University for U.S. Department of the Interior, Denver, CO, January 2013

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THESES AND DISSERTATIONS SUPERVISED

(Most theses and dissertations since 1999 are available electronically via the links provided)

 

1.               Pankaj Agarwal, MS Thesis, “Modeling and Assessment of the Externally-Fired Combined Cycle System,”  graduated December 1995.  Available in NCSU’s D.H. Library under LD3921 .Civil Eng. .A327

 

2.               Mitesh Kini, MS Thesis, “Probabilistic Modeling of Exhaust Emissions from Light Duty Gasoline Vehicles,” graduated December 1996.  Available in NCSU’s D.H. Library under LD3921 .Civil Eng. .K57

 

3.               Loan K. Tran, MS Thesis, “Performance and Cost Modeling of NOx Combustion Control Technologies in Pulverized Coal Power Plants,” graduated December 1996.  Available in NCSU’s D.H. Library under LD3921 .Civil Eng. .T73

 

4.               Kamalpreet Singh, MS Thesis, “Uncertainty Analysis in Air Quality Modeling,” graduated December 1997.  Available in NCSU’s D.H. Library under LD3921 .Civil Eng. .S535

 

5.               David Rhodes, MS Thesis, “Quantitative Analysis of Variability and Uncertainty in Environmental Risk Assessment,” graduation August 1997.  Available in NCSU’s D.H. Library under LD3921 .Civil Eng. .R523

 

6.               Ranjit Bharvirkar, MS Thesis, “Quantification of Variability and Uncertainty in Emission Factors and Emission Inventories,” May 1999.

 

7.               Alper Unal, MS Thesis, “Modeling of Highway Vehicle Emissions Using Remote Sensing Data,” May 1999.

 

8.               Naveen Akunuri, MS Thesis, “Process Modeling of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Systems Using ASPEN,” May 1999.

 

9.               Russell Dalton, MS, 1999, “Empirical modeling of the effects of traffic characteristics on vehicle emissions,” (co-chair with Nagui M. Rouphail).  Available in NCSU’s D.H. Library under LD3921 .Civil Eng. .D243

 

10.           Sudeep Vaswani, MS Thesis, "Development of Models for Calculating the Life Cycle Inventory of Methanol by Liquid Phase and Conventional Production Processes," June 2000 (co-chair with M.A. Barlaz).

 

11.            Matthew Pickett, MS Thesis, "Modeling the Performance and Emissions of British Gas/Lurgi-Based Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Systems," January 2001 (co-chair with M.A. Barlaz)

 

12.            Colyar, James Daniel, MS Thesis, "An Empirical Study of the Relationships Between Macroscopic Traffic Parameters and Vehicle Emissions," March 2001 (co-chair with Nagui Rouphail).

 

13.            Coehlo, Maysa, PhD, "Evaluation of Alternative Future Energy Scenarios for Brazil Using an Energy Mix Model," June 2001 (chair). Available in NCSU’s D.H. Library under LD3921 .Civil Eng. .C545

 

14.            Bammi, Sachin, MS Thesis, "Quantitative Analysis of Variability and Uncertainty in On-Road and Non-Road Mobile Source Emission Factors," July 2001 (chair)

 

15.            Patil, Sumeet R., MS Thesis, “Identification, Application, and Comparison of Sensitivity Analysis Methods for Food Safety Risk Assessment Models,” August 2001 (chair)

 

16.            Xie, Chi, MS Thesis, “Modeling the Performance and Emissions of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle based Lurgi Ammonia Synthesis System,” December 2001 (chair)

 

17.            Zheng, Junyu, PhD Dissertation, “Quantification of Variability and Uncertainty in Emission Estimation:  General Methodology and Software Implementation,” May 2002 (chair)

 

18.           Li, Minsheng, MS Thesis, “Life Cycle Inventory Development for a Solid Waste/Coal Blend Gasification System for Production of Power and Chemicals,” August 2002 (co-chair with M. Barlaz).

 

19.            Unal, Alper, PhD Dissertation, “On-Board Measurement and Analysis of On-Road Vehicle Emissions,” August 2002 (chair).

 

20.            Li, Song, PhD Dissertation, “Development and Demonstration of a Methodology for Characterizing and Managing Uncertainty and Variability in Emission Inventories,” August 2002 (chair). 

 

21.            Abdel-Aziz, Amr, PhD Dissertation, “Incorporating Uncertainties in Emission Inventories Into Air Quality Modeling,” December 2002 (chair).

 

22.            Chen, Jianjun, MS Thesis, “Optimization of Gasification Combined Cycle Systems Under Variability and Uncertainty,” July 2003 (chair).

 

23.            Danish, Tanwir, MS Thesis, “Evaluation of Selected Sensitivity Analysis Methods Applied to a Food Safety Risk Model,” July 2003 (chair).

 

24.            Zhao, Yuchao, PhD Dissertation, “Quantification of Variability and Uncertainty in Emission Factors and Emission Inventories for Urban Air Toxics,” August 2003 (chair).

 

25.           Mokhtari, Amirhossein, PhD Dissertation, “Evaluation of Sensitivity Analysis Methods for Application to Microbial Food Safety Process Risk Models,” July 2004.

 

26.           Zhu, Yunhua, PhD Dissertation, “Evaluation of Gas Turbine and Gasifier-Based Power Generation Systems,” August 2004. 

 

27.           Phillips, Lori Ann, MS Thesis, “Public Perception of Indoor Air Quality and Evaluation of Indoor Air Cleaners,” May 2006.

 

28.           Abolhasani, Saeed, MS Thesis, “Assessment of On-Board Emissions and Energy Use of Nonroad Construction Vehicles,” August 2006.

 

29.           Zhang, Kaishan, PhD Dissertation, “Micro-Scale On-Road Vehicle-Specific Emissions Measurements and Modeling,” August 2006.

 

30.           Kim, Kangwook, PhD Dissertation, “Operational Evaluation of In-Use Emissions and Fuel Consumption of B20 Biodiesel versus Petroleum Diesel-Fueled Onroad Heavy-Duty Diesel Dump Trucks and Nnonroad Construction Vehicles,” December 2007.

 

31.           Zhai, Haibo, PhD Dissertation, “Regional Onroad Mobile Source Emissions Characterization for Conventional and Alternative Vehicle Technologies,” December 2007.

 

32.           Pang, Shih-hao, PhD Dissertation, “Life Cycle Inventory Incorporating Real-World In-Use Measurement Data for Nonroad Construction Vehicles and Equipment,” December 2007.

 

33.       Kuo, Po-Yao, PhD Dissertation, “Evaluation of Freight Truck Anti-Idling Strategies for Reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions, August 2008.

 

34.       Choi, Hyung-Wook, PhD Dissertation, Measurement and modeling of the activity, energy, and emissions of conventional and alternative vehicles, August 2009.

 

35.       Cao, Ye., MS Thesis, “Modeling of Human Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter Using a Stochastic Scenario-Based Model, August 2010.

 

36.       Graver, B., MS Thesis, “Measurement, Prediction, and Evaluation of Microscale Energy Use and Emissions for a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Based on Real-World Driving Data,” August 2010.

 

37.       Sandhu, G., MS Thesis, “Methods For Quality Assurance Of Portable Emissions Measurement System Data and Methods For Field Comparison Of Alternative Fuels,” August 2010.

 

38.       Liu, X., PhD Dissertation, “Quantification and Source Apportionment of Human Exposure to Atmospheric Fine Particulate Matter,” December 2011.

 

39.       Sun, Yuanfang, MS Thesis, “Repeatability of Real-World Vehicle Emissions Measurements,” May 2012.

 

40.       Yazdani, B., MS Thesis, “Measurement of Road Grade,” December 2012

 

 

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SELECTED PRESENTATIONS

Graver, B.M., and H.C. Frey, “Comparison of Locomotive Emissions Measured during Dynamometer versus Rail Yard Engine Load Tests,” 92nd Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, January 13-17, 2013.

Sandhu, G.S., and H.C. Frey, “Effects of Errors on Vehicle Emission Rates from Portable Emissions Measurement Systems,” 92nd Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, January 13-17, 2013

Liu, B., and H.C. Frey, Development and Evaluation of a Simplified Version of MOVES for Coupling with a Traffic Simulation Model, 105th Annual Meeting of the Air & Waste Management Association, San Antonio, Texas, June 20, 2012.

Sandhu, G.S., and H.C. Frey, Real-World Efficacy of Heavy Duty Diesel Truck NOx and PM Emissions Controls, 22nd Annual CRC Real World Emissions Workshop, San Diego, CA, March 26-28, 2012.

Frey, H.C., H. Zhai, and N.M. Rouphail, Regional On-Road Mobile Source Emissions Characterization for Conventional and Advanced Vehicle Technologies, 18th CRC On-Road Vehicle Emissions Workshop, San Diego, CA, March 31-April 2, 2008.

Frey, H.C., K. Kim, S.H. Pang, W. Rasdorf, P. Lewis, Effect of Soy-Based B20 Biodiesel on Fuel Use and Emissions of 15 Construction Vehicles Based on In-Use Measurements, 18th CRC On-Road Vehicle Emissions Workshop, San Diego, CA, March 31-April 2, 2008.

Frey, H.C., and S.H. Pang, Vehicle-Specific Emissions Modeling For 34 Off-Road Construction Vehicles Based Upon Real-World On-Board Measurements, 18th CRC On-Road Vehicle Emissions Workshop, San Diego, CA, March 31-April 2, 2008.

Frey, H.C., P.Y. Kuo, and C. Villa, Measurement and Modeling of Fuel Use and Exhaust Emissions from Idling Long-Haul Truck Engines and Auxiliary Power Units, 18th CRC On-Road Vehicle Emissions Workshop, San Diego, CA, March 31-April 2, 2008.

Frey, H.C., Real-World Vehicle Activity, Fuel Use, and Emissions, Presented at International Symposium on Transportation System Impacts in the USA and Portugal, Luso-American Foundation (FLAD), Lisbon, Portugal, March 6, 2008.

Frey, H.C., Identification and Evaluation of Potential Best Practices for Greenhouse Gas Reductions in Freight Transportation, Chair’s Air Pollution Seminar, California Air Resources Board, Sacramento, CA, Wednesday, January 9, 2008.

Frey, H.C., Comparison and Evaluation of Sensitivity Analysis Methods for Probabilistic Risk Assessments, 2007 International Science Forum on Computational Toxicology, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, May 21–23, 2007.

Frey, H.C., Quantification of Uncertainty in Air Pollutant Emission Inventories, 16th Annual International Emission Inventory Conference - Emission Inventories: "Integration, Analysis, and Communications, Raleigh, NC, May 14-17, 2007.

Frey, H.C., and P.Y. Kuo, Assessment of Potential Reduction in Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions in Freight Transportation, 16th Annual International Emission Inventory Conference - Emission Inventories: "Integration, Analysis, and Communications, Raleigh, NC, May 14-17, 2007.

Frey, H.C., and K. Zhang, Implication of Measured In-Use Light Duty Gasoline Vehicle Emissions for Emission Inventory Development at High Spatial and Temporal Resolution, 16th Annual International Emission Inventory Conference - Emission Inventories: "Integration, Analysis, and Communications, Raleigh, NC, May 14-17, 2007.

Frey, W.J. Rasdorf, S-H. Pang, K. Kim, and P. Lewis, Methodology for Activity, Fuel Use and Emissions Data Collection and Analysis for Nonroad Construction Equipment, 16th Annual International Emission Inventory Conference - Emission Inventories: "Integration, Analysis, and Communications, Raleigh, NC, May 14-17, 2007.

Zhai, H., H.C. Frey, and N. M. Rouphail, Development of a Model Emissions Model for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle, 16th Annual International Emission Inventory Conference - Emission Inventories: "Integration, Analysis, and Communications, Raleigh, NC, May 14-17, 2007.

Frey, H.C., Incorporating Risk and Uncertainty into the Assessment of Impacts of Global Climate Change on Transportation Systems, 2nd Workshop on Impacts of Global Climate Change on Hydraulics, Hydrology and Transportation, Center for Transportation and the Environment, Washington, DC, March 29, 2006.

 

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Last Updated November 2, 2012.