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The Fred Gould Lab
North Carolina State University, Department of Entomology
Our goal is to maintain a creative research lab where hard work and fun can coexist.

PEOPLE

Contact information for all people, click on the name for email address link

Fred Gould
Yunxin Huang
Gissella Vasquez
Mathieu Legros
Rebekah Powell
Marie Estock
Jennifer Emmerson
Jennifer Petzold
Rachael Katz
Sandra Paa
Michael Ward


FRED GOULD STATEMENT
The mission of our lab group is to investigate the ecology and genetics of insect pests in order to better understand natural and human-induced evolution. We believe that this knowledge will contribute to improving food production, and the health of humans and the environment. We strive to work hard as a team, respect each other’s contributions, and have fun along the way.

Some of our projects have clearly defined, applied objectives, while others are motivated solely by the desire to better understand the evolution of biological diversity. Our lab has historically focused on pests of agricultural importance, as seen in research projects with the headings “Plant-Insect Interactions”, “Evolution of Moth Sexual Communication Systems”, and “Evolution of Resistance in Crop Pests” . In the past 5 years we have expanded our research to also include pests such as mosquitoes that have direct impacts on human health. Our project on “Genetic Pest Management” reflects our belief that genetic engineering of insects can be used as a tool for decreasing the impacts from pests of medical and agricultural importance.

FRED GOULD CV
Resume: Fred Gould

Professional Preparation
Queens College, City University of New York.
Biology, B.S. 1971
State University of N.Y. at Stony Brook, N.Y. Ecology & Evolutionary
Biology, Ph.D. 1977

Professional Positions
1977-78
Postdoctoral Fellow, National Science Foundation
1978-79
Research Associate, Dept. Entomology, N.C. State Univ., Raleigh
1979-85
Assistant Professor, Dept. Entomology, N.C. State Univ., Raleigh
1985-89
Associate Professor, Dept. Entomology, N.C. State Univ., Raleigh
1990-93
Professor, Dept. Entomology, N.C. State Univ., Raleigh
1993-Present
Reynolds Professor, Dept. Entomology, N.C. State Univ., Raleigh
2002-Present
Adjunct Professor, Dept. of Genetics, N.C. State Univ., Raleigh

Honors, Awards, Committees: Past 5 years.
George Bugliarello Prize for American Scientist article on genetic manipulation of pests for control of human disease vectors 2007

Alexander Von Humboldt Award --for most important agricultural research over a 5-year period, 2004

NSF National Evolutionary Synthesis Center- Grants review panel 2004-present

National Science Foundation Grants review panel member-population biology. 2004

National Academy of Sciences—Selected as National Associate, 2003

National Research Council- Report review coordinator, 2003

Entomological Society of America—Selected as Fellow 2003

Univ. Arizona, Dept. Entomology, External Reviewer, 2002

National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council. Committee on Environmental Effects of Commercialization of Transgenic Plants, Chair, 2000-2002

Conference of American Catholic Bishops, Scientific Consultant on Transgenic Crops, 2000

National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council. Committee to develop recommendations on “Genetically Modified Pest Protected Crops” 1999-2000

Peer reviewed publications: Past 2 years.
Sheck, A. L., A. T. Groot, C. M. Ward, C. Gemeno, J. Wang, C. Schal, & F. Gould. 2006. Genetics of sex pheromone blend differences between Heliothis virescens and Heliothis subflexa: A chromosome mapping approach. J. Evol. Biol.
19:600-617. (PDF)

Magori, K., and F. Gould. 2006. Genetically engineered underdominance for manipulation of pest populations: A determinisitic model. Genetics 172:2613-2620. (PDF)

Groot, A. T., Bennett J., J. Hamilton, R. G. Santangelo, C. Schal, and F. Gould. (2006). Experimental evidence for interspecific directional selection on moth pheromone communication. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 103: 5858-5863. (PDF)

Sinkins, S. P., and F. Gould. 2006. Gene drive systems for insect disease vectors. Nature Reviews Genetics. 7:427-435. (PDF)

Gould, F., K. Magori, Y. X. Huang 2006 Genetic strategies for controlling mosquito-borne diseases. American Scientist. 94 (3): 238-246. (PDF)

Gould, F., Cohen M. B., J. S. Bentur, G. G. Kennedy, J. W. Van Duyn. 2006. Impact of small fitness costs on pest adaptation to crop varieties with multiple toxins: A heuristic model. J. Econ. Entomol. 99:2091-2099. (PDF)

Jackson, R.E., F. Gould , J. R. Bradley, J. W. Van Duyn. 2006.Genetic variation for resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxins in Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae) in eastern North Carolina. J. Econ.Entomol. 99:1790-1797. (PDF)

Jackson, R. E., M. A. Marcus, F. Gould, J. R. Bradley, J. W. Van Duyn. 2007. Cross-resistance responses of Cry1Ac-selected Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae) to the Bacillus thuringiensis protein Vip3A. J. Econ. Entomol. 100:180-186. (PDF)

Gahan, L. J., F. Gould, J. D. Lopez, S. Micinski, D. G. Heckel . 2007. A polymerase chain reaction screen of field populations of Heliothis virescens for a retrotransposon insertion conferring resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxin. J. Econ. Entomol. 100:187-194. (PDF)

Groot, A. T., R. G. Santangelo, E. Ricci, C. Brownie, F. Gould, C. Schal. 2007. Differential attraction of Heliothis subflexa males to synthetic pheromone lures in eastern US and western Mexico. J. Chem Ecol. 33:353-368. (PDF)

Huang, Y., K. Magori, A. L. Lloyd, F. Gould. 2007. Introducing desirable transgenes into insect populations using Y-linked meiotic drive—a theoretical assessment. Evolution 61:717-726. (PDF)

Li, G. P., K. M. Wu, F. Gould, J. K. Wang, J. Miaoi, X. W. Gao, Y. Y.Guo. 2007. Increasing tolerance to Cry1Ac cotton from cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, was confirmed in Bt cotton farming area of China. Ecological Entomology 32:366-375. (PDF)

Heckel, D. G., L. J. Gahan, S.W. Baxter, J. Z. Zhou, A. M. Shelton, F. Gould, B. E. Tabashnik. 2007. The diversity of Bt resistance genes in species of Lepidoptera. J. Invert. Pathol. 95:192-197 Sp. Iss. (PDF)

Huang,, Y., K. Magori, A. L. Lloyd, F. Gould. 2007. Introducing transgenes into insect populations using combined gene-drive strategies: Modeling and analysis. Insect biochem. Mol. Biol. 37:1054-63. (PDF)

Graduate Students: Past 10 years.
(* denotes co-advised students)

Sumerford, Doug Ph.D. 1997
Research Scientist, USDA
Thesis: “Genetic analysis of adaptation to secondary plant compounds by Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).”

Sisterson, Mark MS. 1997
USDA Research Scientist
Thesis: “Natural history of Heliothis subflexa in the Southeastern US”

Peck, Steve Ph.D.* 1997
Associate Professor, Brigham Young University
Thesis: “Spatial aspects of the evolution of pesticide resistance: models and recommendations.”

Schliekelman, Paul PhD.* 2000 Associate Professor, University of Georgia
Thesis: “Population genetic considerations in the development and release of transgenic insect pests”.

Oppenheim, Sara M.S. 2000
PhD. Student, North Carolina State University
Thesis: “The role of enemy-free space in the evolution of specialized herbivores”

Rennie, Traci M.S 2003
Research technican NSF/NCSU CIPM
Thesis “Use of stable isotopes for determination of larval origins of Helicoverpa zea adults”

Cabrera, Juan PhD* 2002
Visiting Research Professor Lima, Peru
Thesis “Tritrophic interactions of Bt-corn, Spodoptera exigua, and natural enemies”

Bateman, Melanie PhD 2006
Research analyst FAO Rome
Thesis: “The potential and realized host range of a specialist herbivore, Heliothis Subflexa”

Benda, Nicole PhD * 2007
USDA Postdoc
Thesis: “Patterns and mechanisms of specialized oviposition behavior in Heliothis subflexa”

Puente, Molly PhD* 2007
Presidential Fellow--NIH
Thesis: “The potential use of herbivore induced volatiles in crop protection: spatially explicit computer analyses”

Ward, Michael M.S. 2008
Proposed Thesis: “Determination of candidate genes involved in evolutionary diversification of moth pheromone blends”

Oppenheim, Sara PhD 2009
Proposed Thesis: “The genetic basis for the evolution of specialization in a lepidopteran species”

Petzold, Jen PhD 2009
Proposed Thesis: “Ecology and genetic of host location and feeding in Heliothis subflexa.”

Katz, Rachael M.S. 2009
Proposed Thesis “Competition and gene flow in Aedes aegypti in Tapachula, Mexico”

Paa, Sandra M.S. 2010
Proposed Thesis: “Empirical test of the Killer-Rescue concept for temporally Limited gene-drive”

POSTDOCS
YUNXIN HUANG STATEMENT
Gene-drive in age- and spatially structured populations

- Analysis of the impact of ecologically complex factors on gene-drive

A number of gene-drive mechanisms have been proposed for replacing disease-vectoring mosquitoes with transgenic genotypes that cannot transmit a specific disease. To date, the dynamics of most drive mechanisms have only been evaluated with simple models where ecological important factors are ignored. My goal in this project is to analyze the impact of age- and space-related factors on the number of engineered insects that must be released into a wild population to achieve successful gene-drive through general age- and spatially structured population genetic models.

As the first step, we have developed an age-structured model to examine the impact of host age structure and mating factors on gene drive. There are a number of age-related factors that may affect the efficiency and the potential for success of a gene drive system. Of interest are the reproductive values of males and females of specific ages, the age-dependent reproductive pattern, degree of assortative mating by age, mating frequency and mating ages. As some of these factors vary from population to population, we treated these factors as parameters and examined their impact when they vary within a reasonable range.

Two specific gene drive systems, engineered underdominance and Medea, were chosen as cases for examining the potential impact of age structure on gene drive. These two drive mechanisms were chosen because they differ dramatically in the critical number of engineered insects needed to introduce. We addressed two key questions: (1) What are the best age-specific release strategies for gene drive? (2) Does the consideration of age structure significantly change the predictions for the number of engineered insects needed to achieve gene drive? Results have been obtained; A paper is being written.

The next step is the development of a model with both age and spatial structure, which is currently underway. There are a number of spatially related factors that may affect the success and efficiency of gene-drive: migration rate, migration pattern, boundary conditions and so on. These factors may act alone or together with age-related factors to impact gene-drive. Our goal is to develop a rather general model that can be used to examine the impact of these concerned factors on gene-drive for a number of candidate gene-drive mechanisms.

YUNXIN HUANG CV
Yunxin Huang, Ph.D
Postdoctoral Research Associate
Department of Entomology
North Carolina State University
840 Method Road, Unit 1
Raleigh, NC 27695-7634
Tel. 919-515-1650
E-mail: yunxin_huang@ncsu.edu

Education
Ph.D: 2003, Department of Mathematics, Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
Advisor: Odo Diekmann
M.Sc: 1998, Department of Mathematics, Utrecht University, The Netherlands
1990, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Science, China
B.Sc: 1984, Department of Mathematics, Hubei University, China

Professional Experiences
1990-1999: Lecturer, Department of Mathematics and Institute of Ecology, Hubei University, China
2004-2005: Postdoctoral research associate, Odum School of Ecology, University of Georgia, USA. Supervisor: Pejman Rohani
2005 – : Postdoctoral research associate, Department of Entomology, North Carolina State University. USA. Supervisor: Fred Gould and Alun Lloyd
Scholarships
- The Netherlands Government Scholarship (awarded by the Netherlands government under the cultural exchange agreement between China and Netherlands). 1997-1998
- Utrecht University Scholarship (awarded by Utrecht University, the Netherlands). 1999-2000; 2002-2003

Research Awards
- Co-receiver of the 2007 George Bugliarello Prize for the superior interdisciplinary article published in American Scientist (94, 238-246), the magazine of Sigma Xi.

Research Grants
Chaotic Synchronization in Ecological and Epidemiological Systems, Source: Chinese Ministry of Education. Period: 2004-2005, Principle investigator.

Invited Seminars and Conference Presentations
“Gene-drive in age-structured populations”. Presented in the workshop “Selfish Genes and Genetic Control of Vector-borne Diseases” held in the National Evolutional Synthesis Center (NESCent), December 4, 2007.
“Introducing transgenes into insect natural populations using Y-linked meiotic drive: A theoretical assessment”. Presented in the workshop “Using Computer Models to Assess Gene Drive Strategies” held in North Carolina State University, October 5, 2006.
“Release of Individuals with two types of MEDEA constructs”. Presented in the workshop “Using Computer Models to Assess Gene Drive Strategies” held in North Carolina State University, October 5, 2006.
“Ecological and Epidemiological Modeling of Structured Populations”, invited seminar in Georgia Southern University, March 4, 2005.
“The Dynamical Implications of Disease Interference: Correlations and Coexistence”, poster presentation in the 2005 Ecology & Evolution of Infectious Disease Conference in Colorado State University, May 19, 2005,
“How Do Cross-migration Models Arise?”, invited seminar in China Eastern Normal University, October 8, 2003
“The Interplay of Migration and population Dynamics in a Patchy World”, presentation in the Departmental Seminars (Stafcolloquium) in the mathematical department, University of Utrecht, May 26, 2003
- “Mathematical modeling of the development of M.laxa”, invited visit in INRA (National Institute of Agronomy Research), France , January-June, 2001
- “Predator Migration In Relation To Prey Density: What are the Consequences?”, invited talk in the workshop “From Individual to Collective Behavior in Biological Systems” held in Isaac Newton Institute for mathematical sciences, University of Cambridge, UK. December 2-9, 2001

Research Interests:
My general interests are the modeling of ecological, epidemiological, evolutionary and genetic systems. I am specifically interested in understanding the complex patterns and dynamics of some specific structured populations, such as spatially structured predator-prey and host-parasitoid populations, age- structured populations of childhood diseases and genetically structured mosquito populations. Differential equations, dynamical systems and probability theories are the major mathematical tools that I used to build and analyze models. Numerical analysis through C++, MATLAB and AUTO etc. has also been used intensively in my research.

Publications
1. Huang, Y., Lloyd, A.L, Legros, M,, Gould, F., Invasion of selfish elements into age-structured populations. (submitted ).
2. Huang, Y., Magori, K., Lloyd, A.L. and Gould, F., (2007b) Introducing transgenes into insect populations using combined gene-drive strategies: Modeling and analysis. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 37:1054-1063
3. Huang, Y., Magori, K., Lloyd, A.L. and Gould, F., (2007a) Introducing desirable transgenes into insect populations using Y-linked meiotic drive: A theoretical assessment. Evolution, 61: 717-726
4. Gould, F.L., Magori, K., Huang, Y. (2006) Genetic strategies for controlling mosquito-borne diseases. American Scientist 94, 238-246
5. Huang, Y., Rohani, P. (2006) Age-structured effects and disease interference. Proceedings of Royal Society of London: Biological Science, 273: 1229-1237
6. Rohani, P, Wearing, H.J., Vasco, D.A., Huang, Y., (2007) Understanding the host-multi pathogen system: the interaction between ecology and immunology, in Infectious Disease Ecology: Effects of Ecosystems on Disease and of Disease on Ecosystems (Edited by Ostfeld, Keesing & Eviner), Princeton University Press.
7. Huang, Y., Rohani, P. (2005) The dynamical implications of disease interference: correlation and coexistence. Theoretical Population Biology 68: 205-215
8. Huang, Y. (2005) How do cross-migration models ar ise? Mathematical Biosciences, 195: 127-140
9. Huang, Y., Diekmann, O. and Van den Bosch, F. (2004) Double-Jump Migration and Diffusive Instability. Bulletin of Mathematical Biology,66: 487-505)
10. Huang, Y., (2003) The Interplay of Migration and Population Dynamics in a Patchy World. Utrecht University, Ph.D dissertation. Electronically available at http://www.library.uu.nl/digiarchief/dip/diss/2003-0709-122256/inhoud.htm
11. Huang, Y. and Diekmann, O. (2003) Interspecific influence on mobility and Turing instability. Bulletin of Mathematical Biology. 65: 143-156
12. Huang, Y. and Diekmann, O. (2001) Predator Migration in Response to Prey Density: What are the Consequences? Journal of Mathematical Biology. 43: 561-581
13. Huang, Y. (1999) Asymptotic Analysis of a Stratified Invasion Model (in English). (Chinese) Journal of Biomathematics. 14:517-522
14. Huang, Y. (1999) Stable Patchy Distribution of a Metapopulation. Journal of Hubei University. 21: 76-80
15. Huang, Y. and Chen, J. (1998) The Persistence and Extinction Condition of an Exploited Diffusive Population Model. (Chinese) Journal of Biomathematics. 13: 51-55
16. Huang, Y. (1998) Qualitative Analysis of A Nonlinear Epidemic Model. (Chinese) J. Math. Med. 12:7-10
17. Huang, Y. and Zhang, H. (1994) Systematic Analysis of an Optimal Scheme of the Cultivated Agriculture in Guang Shui. Journal of Hubei University. 16: 97-101
18. Huang, Y. (1994) Study of a predator-prey model with diffusion. Journal of Hubei University. 16 ( special issue): 1-4
19. Huang, Y., Zhu, Z. (1994) Modeling and analysis of a population with natural age structure. Advance of Mathematical Biology(Proceedings. Ed. Lan, Z and Li, D),Chendu Science and Technology University Press. pp121-125
20. Zhu, Z. and Huang, Y. (1990) The Study of an Age-Structured Population Model. Journal of Hubei University. 12: 223-227

GISSELLA Vásquez STATEMENT
Research Interests:

I am interested in the areas of insect behavior and chemical ecology, specifically in understanding the mechanisms underlying insect chemical-mediated behaviors. My doctoral research under supervision of Dr. Jules Silverman focused on non-nestmate queen and worker adoption, and colony fusion in the invasive Argentine ant, Linepithema humile. By combining behavioral assays, cuticular hydrocarbon gas-chromatography analyses and DNA microsatellite analyses, I determined that cuticular hydrocarbon similarity and genetic similarity were associated with adoption of non-nestmate queens and fusion of mutually aggressive Argentine ant colonies. These two processes, queen adoption and colony fusion, may be involved in the transition from smaller, territorial colonies to larger, more open Argentine ant colonies in its introduced range.

In the laboratory of Dr. Fred Gould, my research focuses on understanding the genetic and molecular basis of pheromone perception in Heliothis virescens and Heliothis subflexa. By combining backcross QTL analyses with candidate gene mapping, the Gould lab has identified a set of candidate olfactory receptor genes associated with male responses to species-specific female pheromone compounds. My research goal is to determine if interspecific differences in regulation of these candidate genes and/or interspecific changes in structural regions of these genes underlie differences in response of H. virescens and H. subflexa males to species-specific pheromone components, (Z)-9-tetradecenal and (Z)-9 hexadecenal, respectively. To achieve this goal, I am performing quantitative real-time PCR analysis to compare expression levels of candidate genes between species, and reverse-transcription PCR and cDNA sequence alignment to identify interspecific genetic variants. I plan to express these candidate genes in a Drosophila olfactory receptor neuron to characterize their activation by female pheromone compounds via electrophysiological and behavioral assays. To determine the chromosomal organization of these candidategenes and sequence untranslated, intronic, and intergenic regions, I will examine H. virescens and H. subflexa BAC clones. In addition, we propose to identify patterns of molecular evolution of pheromone receptor genes by comparing orthologous sequences across closely related species of Heliothinae.

GISSELLA Vásquez CV
Gissella M. Vásquez
Department of Entomology
North Carolina State University
840 Method Road, Unit 1
Raleigh, NC 27695-7034
Phone: (919) 515-1650
gmvasque@ncsu.edu

EDUCATION

• Ph.D. Entomology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina.
December 2006.
Dissertation: Non-nestmate adoption and colony fusion in the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile.

• M.S. Entomology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina.
May 2002.
Thesis: Assessment of quality and efficacy of selected commercially available biological control agents for greenhouse pest management.

• Honors Degree Biology, Universidad Nacional Agraria “La Molina”, Lima, Peru.
October 1999.
Thesis: Effects of resistant potato clones on the development of the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller).

• B.S. Biology, Universidad Nacional Agraria “La Molina”, Lima, Peru.
April 1997.

RESEARCH EXPERIENCE

• Research Associate, 09/2006 –present.
Department of Entomology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC.
Research focus:

Determine if interspecific differences in regulation of four candidate pheromone receptor genes are responsible for differences in response of Heliothis virescens and H. subflexa males to species-specific female pheromone components.

Determine if interspecific genetic changes in structural regions of four candidate pheromone receptor genes are responsible for differences in response of Heliothis virescens and H. subflexa males to species-specific female pheromone components.

Identify patterns of molecular evolution of pheromone receptor genes by comparing
orthologous sequences across closely related species of Heliothinae.

• Graduate Research Assistant, 08/2002 – 08/2006.
Department of Entomology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC.
Research focus:

Study the role of queen adoption and colony fusion in shaping Argentine ant, Linepithema humile, social structure. Behavioral assays were used to determine levels of foreign queen and worker acceptance and rates of fusion of aggressive colonies.

Determine if cuticular hydrocarbon profile similarity is associated with foreign queen adoption and fusion of unrelated colonies. GC analyses of queen and worker cuticular hydrocarbons (HC) were performed. HC similarities were correlated with rates of foreign queen acceptance and colony fusion. Changes in HC profiles of foreign queens after adoption and fused colonies were determined.

Determine if genetic similarity is associated with foreign queen adoption and fusion of unrelated colonies. DNA microsatellite analyses were performed to determine genetic differentiation and percentage of shared alleles between colonies and establish a correlation with rates of foreign queen acceptance and colony fusion.

• Agricultural Research Technician, 01/2002 - 07/2002
Department of Entomology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC.
Research experience:

Ant colony rearing, ant sampling, and ant aggression testing.

Evaluation of technical materials against urban pest ants.

Technical experience in the use of DNA microsatellites and in extractions of cuticular hydrocarbons of Argentine ant.

Managing FORMIS (EndNote database).

• Graduate Research Assistant, 08/1999 - 12/2001
Department of Entomology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC.
Research focus:

Quality assessment of selected commercially available whitefly and aphid biological control agents in the United States. The quality of Encarsia formosa, Aphidius colemani, and Aphidoletes aphidimyza sold by six companies in the U.S. was assessed using International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC) procedures. Variability in product cost, delivery punctuality, shipment packaging and product information was also recorded.

Efficacy assessment of Aphidius colemani Viereck for the suppression of the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, in greenhouse-grown chrysanthemum. The efficacy of A. colemani for suppression of A. gossypii in greenhouse-grown chrysanthemums was compared with imidacloprid. Rates of aphid population growth, parasitism levels and aesthetic damage were recorded.

• Research Assistant, 05/1999 - 07/1999
Plant Physiology Laboratory, Breeding and Genetic Resources Department, International Potato Center. Lima, Peru.

Standardization of an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) for quantification of potato glycoalkaloids.

• Honors Degree Scholar, 10/1997 - 05/1999
Crop ProtectionDepartment, International Potato Center, Lima, Peru.
Scholarship to obtain graduate diploma in biology. Research focus:

Evaluate the mechanisms of resistance to the potato tuber moth (PTM), Phthorimaea operculella, in potato clones. Antibiosis and antixenosis assays were designed to investigate the effects of twelve resistant clones on potato tuber moth development and oviposition preference.

Determine the levels of P. opercullela endopeptidase inhibition by potato extracts. Crude and partially purified extracts of PTM resistant clones were assayed as inhibitors of endopeptidases of P. operculella larvae using azocasein 2% and quantified by spectrophotometry.

Determine the levels of bovine trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibition by potato extracts. Crude and partially purified extracts of PTM resistant clones were assayed as inhibitors of trypsin and chymotrypsin using p-nitroanilide (BApNA and BtpNA) and quantified in an ELISA plate reader.

Quantification of potato glycoalkaloids by a colorimetric method. Lyophilized potato samples were extracted and the glycoalkaloid fractions were quantified by measuring orthophosphoric acid reaction in a spectrophotometer.

• International Agriculture Communicator, 02/1997 - 06/1997
Walt Disney World, Orlando, FL.

International Potato Center representative in 1997 Epcot International Flower and Garden Festival, “Gardening for Food around the World”. Program sponsored by World Bank, Walt Disney World and International Potato Center.

• Intern Research Assistant, 07/1996 - 10/1996
Electrophoresis Laboratory, Genetic Resources Department, International Potato Center. Lima, Peru.

Training in isozyme electrophoresis and SDS polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Became familiar with protein purification and Bradford protein quantification.

• Intern Research Assistant, 02/1996 - 04/1996
Entomology and Nematology Department, International Potato Center. Lima, Peru.

Training in potato integrated pest management: biological control of Andean potato weevil with Beauveria bassiana, biological control of potato tuber moth with Copidosoma koehleri and Baculovirus, and preparation and use of potato tuber moth pheromones. Gained experience in potato tuber moth and Andean potato weevil mass rearing, and insect damage rating in potatoes.

TEACHING EXPERIENCE

• Guest lecturer (2008). ENT 527: Insect Neurogenomics. Prepared and delivered a lecture on expression and sequence variation of moth pheromone receptor genes.

• Teaching assistant (2003), ENT 032: Urban Entomology. Assigned and graded quizzes, prepared lab practices, and accompanied students in off-campus visits. Delivered two lectures on insect physiology and morphology.

• Teaching assistant (2002), ENT 731: Insect Ecology. Prepared and conducted review sessions before exams, and accompanied students in field practices.

• Teaching assistant (2001), ENT 201: Insects and People. Assigned and graded lab reports, prepared instructional material, and delivered two lectures on Heteroptera and one seminar on West Nile virus in the U.S. Prepared and conducted on-campus outreaches.

WORKSHOPS AND SHORT-COURSES

• Professional Development Workshop: Perspectives on Science in the 21st Century:
Challenges for Young Investigators. W.M. Keck Center for Behavioral Biology, North Carolina State University. Research Triangle Park, NC October 22nd, 2005.

• New Teaching Assistant Orientation: First Day in the Classroom. Panelist. Faculty CenterforTeaching and Learning, North Carolina State University. Raleigh, NC August 16th, 2005.

• Teaching Effectiveness Workshop. Participant. Faculty Center for Teaching and Learning, North Carolina State University. Raleigh, NC August 15th, 2002.

• Foreign Student Seminar: Preserving Cultural Identity in an Age of Globalization. Participant. IIE/Southern Region and Fulbright Program. New Orleans, LA March 16-19, 2000.

• Global Knowledge Conference 1997. Entertaining and Educational Approaches to Communicating Development Issues: Learning from the Disney/World Bank Partnership. Speaker. The World Bank and Government of Canada. Toronto, CAN, June 22-25, 1997.

• Polymerase Chain Reaction: Theoretical and Applied Course. BioLinks and Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Peru, November 20-24, 1995.

• International course: Biotechnology in Integrated Pest Management and Insect Biological Control. Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Peru, June 19-28, 1995.

• International course: Selected topics in Immunology and Current topics on Microbial Infections in Women and Infants: Diagnosis, Treatment and Resistance Problems, IX Microbiology and Parasitology Peruvian Congress, Peruvian Microbiology Association. Lima, Peru, March 20-25, 1995.

FELLOWSHIPS AND HONORS

• W.M. Keck Center for Behavioral Biology Postdoctoral Fellowship July 2007 - present.
.
• North Carolina Entomological Society Fall Meeting and Banquet. Raleigh, NC November 18th, 2005.
First place graduate student poster competition.

• Entomological Society of America Annual Meeting. Salt Lake City, UT November 14 -18, 2004.
Winner of the oral ten-minute paper student competition for the President’s prize.

• David R. Nimocks Jr. Fellowship in Indoor Urban Entomology. Spring 2003 - Spring 2006.

• Fulbright Scholarship. Fall 1999 - Spring 2001.

• Graduate Diploma Scholarship. Crop Protection Department, International Potato Center, Lima, Peru. October 1997- May 1999.

• Training Fellowship. Genetic Resources Department/Entomology and Nematology Department, International Potato Center, Lima, Peru. 1996.

PROFESSIONAL AFFILIATIONS

• American Association for the Advancement of Science
• Entomological Society of America
• International Society of Chemical Ecology
• North Carolina Entomological Society

ACADEMIC SERVICE AND LEADERSHIP

• Vice-president, Entomology Post-Doctoral Association October 2007 - present.

• Department of Entomology Representative. 1st Annual NC State University Graduate Student Research Symposium. Raleigh, NC March 30, 2006.

• Secretary. NCSU Entomology Graduate Student Association. 2004 - 2005.

• Entomology Graduate Student Representative. University Graduate Student Association. 2004 - 2005.

• Teaching Effectiveness Committee. University Graduate Student Association. 2004 - 2005.

• Organizer. NCSU Outstanding Teaching Assistant Award ceremony and luncheon. April 11th, 2005

• Arthropod Genomics Search Committee. NCSU Department of Entomology. 2004.

• Student volunteer. Entomological Society of America Annual Meeting. San Diego, CA December 9-12, 2001.

• International Potato Center Liaison. Feria Internacional del Pacifico, Agrotec 1998. Lima, Peru, November 16-22, 1998.

COMMUNITY OUTREACH

• Lecturer, Hispanic Training Seminar, Harnett County Center, North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences (June 2000).

• 4-H State Entomology Judge, North Carolina 4-H Congress 2000, Athens High School (July 2000).

• Volunteer, BugFest 2000 - 2005, North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences.

• Volunteer, NCSU Department of Entomology Educational Programs for the Study of Insects: Apex Elementary School (February 2001), Yates Mill Elementary School (January 2003), Lacy Elementary School (April 2004), North Ridge Country Club (February 2006).

• Volunteer, Employee Appreciation Day, Reynolds Coliseum, North Carolina State University (September 2001).

• Volunteer, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences Tailgate, Entertainment and Sports Arena (November 2001).

SKILLS

• Insect Pest Management methods, insect field collection and mass rearing, insect bioassays.
• PCR, RT-PCR, qRT-PCR.
• DNA Microsatellite analysis.
• BAC filter hybridization and BAC screening by southern blotting and PCR.
• cDNA Cloning and clone screening by restriction enzyme analysis.
• Gas Chromatography (GC) and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectometry (GC-MS).
• Cuticular hydrocarbon extraction and separation (Argentation Chromatography/Molecular Sieve 5A).
• Glycoalkaloid extraction and quantification (colorimetric method).
• Western blotting, SDS-PAGE, and isozyme electrophoresis.
• ELISA development and use.
• Endopeptidase activity and protein quantification (Bradford).
• Computer Literacy (brief list: Excel, Word, Word Perfect, Power Point, Adobe Photoshop, EndNote, SAS, Fstat, RFLPScan, ChemStation, CLC Free Workbench, ClustalX).
• Foreign Languages: Spanish (native speaker).

PAPERS PRESENTED

1. Vásquez, G.M., J. Olivera, J. Tenorio, M. Palacios & A. Golmirzaie. 1996. Characterization of three species of Gelechiidae by isozyme electrophoresis. Entomological Society of Peru National Convention XXXVIII. Chincha, Peru, November 17-21, 1996.

2. Vásquez, G.M., J. Tenorio, M. Palacios, A. Golmirzaie & A. Lagnaoui. 1999. Effects of resistant potato clones on the development of the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella. International Potato Center (CIP) 1999 Research Seminars. Lima, Peru, April 28, 1999.

3. Vásquez, G.M., D. Orr, J. Baker & M. Gibbs. 2000. Quality of commercially available whitefly and aphid biological control agents in the United States. Entomological Society of America Annual Meeting. Montreal, Canada, December 3-7, 2000.

4. Vásquez, G.M., D. Orr, J. Baker & M. Gibbs. 2001. Efficacy assessment of Aphidius colemani Viereck for suppression of the melon aphid in greenhouse grown chrysanthemum. Entomological Society of America Annual Meeting. San Diego, CA December 9-12, 2001.

5. Vásquez, G.M. & J. Silverman. 2003. Argentine ant biology and management. NCPCA 53rd Annual Pest Control Technicians’ School. Raleigh, NC January 21-23, 2003.

6. Vásquez, G.M. & J. Silverman. 2003. Queen adoption and nestmate recogntion in the Argentine ant. Entomological Society of America Annual Meeting. Cincinnati, OH October 26-30, 2003.

7. Vásquez, G.M. & J. Silverman. 2004. Colony Structure and queen adoption in the Argentine ant. NCPCA 54th Annual Pest Control Technicians’ School. Raleigh, NC January 20-22, 2004.

8. Vásquez, G.M. & J. Silverman. 2004. Factors influencing queen adoption in the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile. Annual meeting of the North American Section of the
International Union for the Study of Social Insects. Camp Tontozona, AZ October 7-10, 2004.

9. Vásquez, G.M. & J. Silverman. 2004. Can colony fusion explain Argentine ant supercolony formation? Entomological Society of America Annual Meeting. Salt Lake City, UT November 14-18, 2004.

10. Vásquez, G.M. & J. Silverman. 2005. Colony fusion in the Argentine ant. NCPCA 55th Annual Pest Control Technicians’ School. Raleigh, NC January 18-20, 2005.

11. Vásquez, G.M. & J. Silverman. 2005. Queen adoption in the Argentine ant: are cuticular hydrocarbons and genetic factors involved? 21st Annual Meeting of the International Society of Chemical Ecology. Washington, DC July 23-27, 2005.

12. Vásquez, G.M. & J. Silverman. 2005. Colony fusion in the Argentine ant: are chemical and genetic factors involved? North Carolina Entomological Society Fall Meeting. Raleigh, NC November 18, 2005.

13. Vásquez, G.M. & J. Silverman. 2005. Chemical and genetic factors influencing fusion of Argentine ant colonies. Entomological Society of America Annual Meeting. Fort Lauderdale, FL December 15-18, 2005.

14. Vásquez, G.M. 2006. Chemical and genetic factors influencing fusion of aggressive Argentine ant colonies. Seventh Annual Student and Postdoctoral Symposium of the W.M. Keck Center for Behavioral Biology. Research Triangle Park, NC January 28, 2006.

15. Vásquez, G.M. & J. Silverman. 2006. Colony fusion in the Argentine ant: are chemical and genetic factors involved? 1st Annual NC State University Graduate Student Research Symposium. Raleigh, NC March 30, 2006.

16. Vásquez, G.M., M. Estock, R. Powell, M. Ward, A. Groot, A. Scheck, N. Vickers, C. Schal & F. Gould. 2007. Identifying genes that alter moth sexual communication: A combined QTL/candidate gene approach. USDA-CSREES arthropods and nematodes programs awardee poster session. Entomological Society of America Annual Meeting. San Diego, CA December 8, 2007.

17. Vásquez, G.M., P. Fischer, S. Lorick, C. Grozinger & F. Gould. 2007. Differential pheromone reception between two species of moths: Gene expression vs. gene sequence variation. Entomological Society of America Annual Meeting. San Diego, CA December 9-12, 2007.

18. Vásquez, G.M. 2008. Differential pheromone reception between two species of moths: Gene expression vs. gene sequence variation. Ninth Annual Student and Postdoctoral Symposium of the W.M. Keck Center for Behavioral Biology. Research Triangle Park, NC January 26, 2008.

19. Vásquez, G.M., P. Fischer, S. Lorick, C. Grozinger & F. Gould. 2008. Differential pheromone reception between two species of moths: Gene expression vs. gene sequence variation. The 15th Indiana University Animal Behavior Conference. Bloomington, IN April 25, 2008.

20. Vásquez, G.M. & F. Gould. 2008. Is pheromone receptor sequence variation involved in differential pheromone perception by two Heliothis moth species? 2008 Symposium of the American Genetic Association on Genetics and Genomics of Behavior. Raleigh, NC June 4-7, 2008.

PUBLICATIONS

1. Vásquez, G.M., D. Orr, & J. Baker. 2004. Quality assessment of selected commercially available whitefly and aphid biological control agents in the United States. Journal of Economic Entomology 97(3): 781-788.

2. Vásquez, G.M., D. Orr, & J. Baker. 2006. Efficacy assessment of Aphidius colemani (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) for suppression of Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae) in greenhouse-grown chrysanthemum. Journal of Economic Entomology 99(4): 1104-1111.

3. Vásquez, G.M. & J. Silverman. 2008. Queen acceptance and the complexity of nestmate discrimination in the Argentine ant. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 62:537-548.

4. Vásquez, G.M. & J. Silverman. 2008. Intraspecific aggression and colony fusion in the Argentine ant. Animal Behaviour 75:583-593.

5. Vásquez, G.M., C. Schal, & J. Silverman. Cuticular hydrocarbons as queen adoption cues in the invasive Argentine ant. Journal of Experimental Biology 211:1249-1256.

6. Vásquez, G.M. & J. Silverman. Flexibility and complexity of chemical recognition cues mediating colony fusion in the Argentine ant. Journal of Chemical Ecology. In preparation.

7. Vásquez, G.M. & J. Silverman. Colony fusion and its fitness implications in the invasive Argentine ant. Behavioral Ecology. In preparation.

MATHIEU STATEMENT
Research interests:

- Aedes aegypti population dynamics and ecology
- Vector-borne diseases epidemiology
- Gene drive mechanisms – Evolution and applications
- Interspecific interactions and evolutionary consequences
- Importance of spatial structure in population dynamics and evolutionary mechanisms
- Modeling in evolutionary ecology

Research project: Spatial modeling of
Aedes aegypti populations and dengue epidemiology

My research goals are to build and develop spatially- and biologically-explicit models of Aedes aegypti populations, in order to predict the success of vector control programs in a given location, both in terms of mosquito population control and reduction of dengue incidence. In particular, we are interested in evaluating the possible release strategies of transgenic dengue-refractory mosquitoes, to provide guidelines on the optimal approaches to achieve population replacement.

The major component of this project is a detailed, stochastic, weather-driven model of A. aegypti populations, called Skeeter Buster. This model incorporates many specific aspects of A. aegypti development, life history and behavior, as well as an explicit spatial setup that operates at the level of individual houses, and, within each house, of individual containers in which immature cohorts are modeled. Skeeter Buster provides therefore a realistic model of a specific mosquito population that can be used to predict the outcome of various control strategies, whether they are based on traditional approaches or on genetic methods, or a combination of the above.

These predictions can then be input into an epidemiological model that describes the transmission of dengue in a human population based on the vector population dynamics as they are modeled by Skeeter Buster. This epidemiological model shares the general characteristics and level of spatial detail of Skeeter Buster, and translates the results of a vector control method in terms of human dengue incidence.

Publications on this project:

None as yet.

In preparation:
- Magori K., Lloyd A., Legros M., Puente M., Focks D., Scott T. and Gould, F. Skeeter Buster: a stochastic, spatially-explicit modeling tool for studying Aedes aegypti population replacement and population suppression strategies, in prep.
- Legros M., Lloyd A., Huang Y. and Gould F. Does density-dependent intraspecific competition regulate the immature stages of Aedes aegypti?, in prep.

_
MATHIEU LEGROS CV
Mathieu LEGROS, PhD.

Postdoctoral Research Associate
North Carolina State University
Dpt. Entomology
840 Method Rd. Unit 1
Raleigh, NC 27607
Tel : (+1) 919-515-1650
Fax : (+1) 919-515-2824
mlegros@ncsu.edu

Date of birth : January 10th, 1981
Citizenship : french

Education
_______________________________________________________________

2001 – 2006 :
PhD in Ecology
Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France)

2000 – 2001 :
Master (french DEA) in Ecology
Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France)

1998 – 2000 :
Graduate studies with major in biology at Ecole Normale Supérieure in Lyon, France, including :

1999 – 2000 :
french “Maîtrise“ in Ecosystems and Populations Biology ;
1998 – 1999 :
french “Licence“ in Cellular Biology and Physiology.

Current Research
_______________________________________________________________

2006 – present : Research Associate
"Spatial modeling of Aedes aegypti populations and dengue epidemiology"
NC State University - Dpt. Entomology
Advisor : Prof. Fred Gould

Research Experience
_______________________________________________________________

2001-2006 :
“Evolutionary ecology of host-parasite interactions“ (PhD thesis, French PDF)
Lab. Parasitologie Évolutive, CNRS UMR 7103, Paris, France.
Advisor : Prof. Jacob Koella.

Experimental work : parasite specialization, specialist and generalist strategies and associated trade-offs (experimental system : mosquito Aedes aegypti / microsporidia Brachiola algerae) ;

Theoretical work : host-parasite interactions and maintenance of sexual reproduction, role of spatial structure (spatial models), local adaptation in a spatial context.

2001 :
"Host-parasite interactions and maintenance of sexual reproduction" (Masters thesis)
Lab.Parasitologie Evolutive, CNRS UMR 7103, Paris VI (J. Koella) ;

2000 :
"Development and installation of a sampling protocol for amphibian populations in restored sites of Lavours marsh"
Lavours Natural Reserve (R. Gruffaz) – UMR 5023, Univ. Lyon I (P. Joly) ;

1999 :
"Soluble HLA-G isoforms and immunological tolerance during pregnancy"
INSERM U395, CHU Purpan, Toulouse (S. Fournel).

Publications in Refereed Journals
_______________________________________________________________

Gould F., Huang Y., Legros M. & Lloyd, A.L. (2008) "A killer-rescue system for self-limiting gene drive of anti-pathogen constructs" (submitted)

Huang Y., Lloyd A.L., Legros M. & Gould, F. (2008) "Gene-drive in age-structured populations" (submitted)

Legros M. & Koella, J.C. ; "Experimental evolution of specialisation by a microsporidian parasite" (in prep. for resubmission) ;

Fournel S., Huc X., Aguerre-Gire M., Solier C., Legros M., Praud-Brethenou C., Moussa M., Chaouat G., Berrebi A., Bensussan A., Lenfant F. and Le Bouteiller P. (2000) ; « Comparative reactivity of different HLA-G monoclonal antibodies to soluble HLA-G molecules », Tissue Antigens, 55(6) : 510-8. (PDF)

Communications
_______________________________________________________________

2008 : "Skeeter Buster, a detailed model of Aedes aegypti populations – Extension to epidemiology of dengue", 2008 Annual Network Meeting for Genetic Strategies for Control of Dengue Virus Transmission, Irvine, CA, USA.

2007 : "Skeeter Buster, a biology-rich model of Aedes aegypti – Implications for gene drive strategies", Selfish genes and genetic control of vector-borne diseases Workshop, National Evolutionary Synthesis Center, Durham, NC, USA.

2005 : “Experimental specialization of a microsporidian parasite to its mosquito host“, Xth ESEB meeting, Krakow, Poland (poster) ;

2003 : “Experimental study of specialization in a host-parasite system“, 26th « Petit pois déridé », Toulouse, France (in french) ;

2002 : “Leaving some space to the Red Queen : the maintenance of sex in a spatial context“, 8th meeting of PhD students in Evolutionary Biology, Lohja, Finland.

Teaching
_______________________________________________________________

2005-2006 : Assistant lecturer (”ATER”) at Université Jules Verne de Picardie, Amiens, France.

L1 (1st year undergrad.) : Zoology, ecology, cellular biology ;
L2 (2nd year undergrad.) : Evolutionary biology ;
L3 (3rd year undergrad.) : Zoology ;
Master : Population biology, population genetics, interspecific interactions.

2002-2005 : Teaching assistant (“moniteur“) at Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France.

L1: ‘Diversity of life’ (ecology, evolutionary biology, population biology, zoology) ;
L2 : Ecology – Biogeography ;
L3 : Population dynamics ;
Master : Parasitology and durable interactions.

2003 : Co-advisor for a master student (3-month research period)

TECHNICAL STAFF
REBEKAH POWELL STATEMENT

REBEKAH POWELL CV
REBEKAH M. POWELL
North Carolina State University
Department of Entomology
Campus Box #7634
Raleigh, NC 27695
Phone: 919-515-1649
Email: rebekah_powell@ncsu.edu

EDUCATION

May2005 University of Delaware – Newark, DE
Bachelor or Science in Wildlife Conservation; Graduated Cum Laude
Overall GPA: 3.78, Major GPA: 3.98

WORK EXPERIENCE

Aug2007–Present Biology Laboratory Manager/Research Technician I
North Carolina State University – Department of Entomology
Raleigh, NC - Laboratory of Dr. Fred Gould
Manage entomology laboratory that rears and maintains colonies of Heliothis virescens, Heliothis subflexa and hybrid lines. Conduct laboratory and greenhouse bioassays involving hybrids of the two species while coordinating with our molecular lab to obtain genotypes. Hire, train, and oversee laboratory technicians that assist in daily maintenance of the biology lab. Assist in logistical planning for primary investigator, graduate student and technician projects when laboratory colony or novel strains are needed. Ensure biology lab functionality through proper supply and colony maintenance.

Nov2006-Aug2007 Laboratory Technician
North Carolina State University – Department of Entomology
Raleigh, NC – Laboratory of Dr. Fred Gould
Assisted in the rearing and maintenance of Heliothis virescens and Heliothis subflexa laboratory colonies. Assisted in laboratory and greenhouse bioassays involving hybrids of the two species.

Jan2006-Nov2006 Assistant Scientist II
BASF
Research Triangle Park, NC – Laboratory of Dr. Hassan Oloumi
Performed bioassays as a laboratory technician in the Urban Entomology Advanced Testing Laboratory. Bioassay design, set up, evaluation, analysis, and reporting. Insect rearing and colony maintenance: Crematogaster spp., Campanotus spp., Blattella germanica, Musca domestica, and Aedes aegypti. Compound formulation, compound application and laboratory organization.

Oct2005-Jan2006 Biology Laboratory Technician
BASF – Contracted through Kelly Scientific
Research Triangle Park, NC – Laboratory of Dr. Hassan Oloumi
Assisted in bioassays as a laboratory technician in the Urban Entomology Advanced Testing Laboratory. Bioassay set up and evaluation, insect rearing and colony maintenance, compound formulation and application, and laboratory organization.

Oct2004-July2005 Research Specialist
DuPont – Contracted through Yoh Scientific
Newark, DE – Laboratory of Dr. Mark Schroeder
Assisted in insecticide and nematocide screens within the Crop Protection division at Stine-Haskell Research Center. Plant propagation, nematode rearing (Meloidogyne), compound formulation and application, bioassay set up and evaluation, and laboratory organization. Directly involved with a large project to research alternate host plants for the nematode biological assay.

May2004-Aug2004, Teacher/Naturalist
May2002-Aug2002 Delaware Nature Society – Ashland Nature Center
Hockessin, DE
Conducted environmental education programs for children and adults. Introduced and further explained many aspects of our environment to visitors.

May2003-Jun2004 Service/Hospitality Manager
TGI Friday’s
Wilmington, DE
Directly responsible for all service departments in mid-volume ($3 to $4 million per year) hospitality driven store. Hired, trained, coached, and scheduled over 50 employees (servers, door staff, and server assistants). Intense problem resolution and prevention, carried out customer service, ran great shifts, improved morale, mentored, ordered and received. Developed and executed new training program for Front of the House teammates.

Feb2003-May2003 Head Trainer
TGI Friday’s
Newark, DE
Facilitated training class and coordinated on-going training schedules for all new servers in multiple restaurant locations.

Aug2002-May2003 Server
TGI Friday’s
Newark, DE
Provided great service to guests while operating in a team-oriented environment.

May2002-Aug2002 Undergraduate Researcher
University of Delaware – Department of Entomology and Wildlife Ecology
Newark, DE – Laboratory of Dr. Jake Bowman
Assisted in field research that investigated life history of the Eastern box turtle (Terrapene carolina carolina) in fragmented landscapes. Tracked individual box turtles using radio telemetry and global positioning systems.

May2001-Aug2001 Undergraduate Researcher – Science and Engineering Scholar
University of Delaware – Department of Entomology and Wildlife Ecology
Newark, DE – Laboratory of Dr. Douglas Tallamy
Assisted in pilot field study to analyze effects of invasive plant species on native wildlife. Measured insect herbivory on introduced/invasive plants and their native counterparts. Project development, project management, data analysis, thesis development, and data presentation.

HONORS AND AWARDS

2004-2005 Dean’s List, University of Delaware
2002 Outstanding Junior, Entomology and Applied Ecology, The Delaware Academy of Science
2002 University of Delaware Undergraduate Research Grant
2001-2002 University of Delaware Science and Engineering Scholar
2001 Woman of Promise Certificate of Distinction, University of Delaware
2001 Undergraduate Research Grant, Adkins Arboretum
2000 First-Year Honors Certificate, University of Delaware
2000 Alpha Zeta Annual Freshman Award, University of Delaware
2000 Starr Scholarship, University of Delaware
1999-2002 Honors Program, University of Delaware
1999-2002 University of Delaware Scholar Award
1999-2002 University of Delaware Grant
1999-2002 Dean’s List, University of Delaware

PROFESSIONAL MEMBERSHIPS

2006-Present North Carolina Entomological Society
2002 President, Sigma Alpha - Alpha Kappa Chapter
2001-Present Sigma Alpha

POSTERS AND PUBLICATIONS

(Poster) Vásquez, G.M., M. Estock, R. Powell, N. Vickers, P. Fischer, S. Lorick, C. Grozinger, C. Schal & F. Gould. 2008. Is Pheromone Receptor Sequence Variation Involved in Differential Pheromone Perception by Two Heliothis Moths? Genetics and Genomics of Behavior poster session.  American Genetic Association Annual Symposium. Raleigh, NC June 5, 2008.

(Poster) Vásquez, G.M., M. Estock, R. Powell, M. Ward, A. Groot, A. Scheck, N.
Vickers, C. Schal & F. Gould.  2007. Identifying genes that alter moth
sexual communication: A combined QTL/candidate gene approach. USDA-CSREES
arthropods and nematodes programs awardee poster session.  Entomological
Society of America Annual Meeting. San Diego, CA December 8, 2007.

(Poster) Baity, R.M., D. Tallamy. The Effects of Alien Plants on Native Ecosystems: A Comparison of Insect Herbivory on Native and Exotic Plant Species. 2002. Undergraduate Research Scholars Poster Session. University of Delaware. Newark, DE April 19, 2002.

(Paper Abstract) Tallamy, D.W., R. Baity. Effect of Alien Plants on the Terrestrial Food Chain. Abstracts Northeast Natural History Conference VII on The Effects of Invasive Plants on Natural Systems. Albany, NY April 24-27, 2002.

MARIE ESTOCK STATEMENT
Molecular Lab Research:

In conjunction with the Biology side of the lab, we analyze the individual moths once they have been mated to determine if they have the right chromosome (whether it be a Heliothis virescens (Hv) chromosome in a Heliothis subflexa (Hs) background or vice versa) that will then pass down to the offspring that is currently being reared as the next generation. This means that we have to work quickly and efficiently so we can give the results back to the Biology lab before the next generation emerges as adults.

To do the analysis, we use various methods such as AFLP mapping and co-dominant markers. At the beginning of a new cross, we run the individuals of the original cross (the grandparents), the F1 female parent of the backcross 1 generation (BC1) and her mate (the recurrent parent, the species we keep backcrossing to), and their BC1 offspring to make a full genetic map for all the the chromosomes (30 or 31 depending on the recurrent parent). Once a map is made we can use phenotypic data for those BC1 individuals and run a statistical analysis to see if any of the chromosomes that we mapped can account for that trait. Once we have identified the chromosome(s) responsible for that trait, we have just performed a QTL or Quantitative Trait Loci Analysis. If there is a single chromosome involved, we've just narrowed down the trait's genetic address to ~3% of the genome (not too shabby). If this a trait that we are very interested in, we will continue the backcrossing of that strain until that single Hv or Hs chromosome is isolated in the other species' genetic background. We know that the full intact chromosome is there because there is no meiotic recombination in the female moths, only in the males, and most of our backcrosses are with females only.

In addition to AFLP mapping, we can use co-dominant markers (a DNA marker that is amplified in both Hv and Hs usually producing a difference in molecular weight between the 2 species) to quickly get an idea if an individual has a chromosome of interest or not. We can tell with a simple PCR reaction if an individual is homozygous Hv, homozygous Hs, or a heterozygote for that specific chromosome of interest. Our lab has developed 20-25 co-dominant markers, 11 of which map to different chromosomes, or roughly 1/3 of the genome. Most of these co-dominant markers were developed from Hv or other species mRNA sequences of candidate genes that we are interested in studying.

We also analyze anything else that Fred finds interesting such as butterflies, Hv and Hs from other states and countries, mosquitoes, moths that we used in a field or cage study, males that have been flown in wind tunnel tests, and even caterpillar toes! (They are very tiny.) Right now we are mostly interested in female pheromone production, male response to the pheromone blends, Bt resistance, feeding choice studies, and finding more co-dominant markers.

_
MARIE ESTOCK CV
Marie Estock

Education and Training

9/95-1/2003
Ph.D. Candidate, ABD, Johns Hopkins University, Department of Chemistry,
Baltimore, MD

9/95-3/97
M.A. in Chemistry awarded in 1997, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD

8/91-5/95
B.A. in Chemistry awarded in 1995, Ohio Wesleyan University, Delaware, OH
American Chemical Society Certified, Graduated Magna Cum Laude

Research Experience

7/05-present
Molecular Laboratory Manager, in the laboratory of Prof. Fred Gould, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC

Primary researcher and lab manager for the molecular genetic laboratory finding QTLs for two closely related moth species, Heliothis virescens and Heliothis subflexa. Using AFLP genetic maps, chromosomes from one species inserted in the other species were analyzed. Duties included scheduling student workers, managing resources for the CALS Facility for DNA Marker Research, upkeep of equipment, ordering supplies, training new students or other personnel, hazardous waste management, and conducting own research project.

6/03-8/04
Laboratory Manager, in the laboratory of Prof. Arjun Heimsath, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH

Primary researcher and lab manager in a geology lab focused on separating quartz from various rock and sediment samples, extracting aluminum and beryllium from the pure quartz, and analyzed the amounts of Al and Be by AMS to calculate erosion rates of glacial areas. Duties included designing and troubleshooting experiments, training students and personnel, maintaining equipment and supplies, and analyzing data.

9/95-1/03
Graduate Research Assistant, in the laboratory of Prof. Thomas D. Tullius, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD

Original research was focused on analysis of the hydroxyl radical footprints of AMT1 and CUP2, DNA and copper binding proteins, and their mutants as well as Zα, a protein fragment from an mRNA editing enzyme, ADAR1, that binds to Z-DNA. Designed experiments to probe the solution structure of Z-DNA in vitro and in vivo. Other duties included writing standard operating procedures, lab setup and start-up, hazardous waste management, training and supervising students, and detailed data analysis.

8/94-5/95
Undergraduate Research, for Prof. Dan E. Vogt, Ohio Wesleyan University, Delaware, OH

Undergraduate research was focused on the synthesis of a salicylic acid derivative that would be used to covalently crosslink sickle cell hemoglobin in the β-cleft so that the hemoglobin would stay in its oxy form, alleviating the symptoms of sickle cell anemia.

6/94-8/94
NSF Funded Undergraduate Research Summer Program, with Prof. Christopher A. Makaroff, Miami University, Oxford, OH

Research centered on scanning a cDNA library to find a gene responsible for male sterility in Arabidopsis thaliana.

Teaching Experience

1/05-4/05
Adjunct Professor, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL
--Teaching biochemistry laboratory for the chemistry department
--Developed own labs and course materials

6/04-4/05
Teacher, The Princeton Review, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH; University of Southern Maine, Portland, ME; and University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL
--Certified to teach general chemistry and organic chemistry for the MCAT

8/01-5/02
Assistant Professor of Chemistry, Millikin University, Decatur, IL
--Taught biochemistry, biochemistry laboratory. general chemistry laboratory, essentials of organic and biochemistry laboratory for nursing majors
--Developed own biochemistry course, made exams and study guides
--Essentials of organic and biochemistry – have notes and ideas about how to implement if needed

3/00-3/01
Swing and Salsa Teacher, Boston Center for Adult Education, Boston, MA
−−Taught beginning and intermediate swing, lindy hop, mambo, cha cha, rumba

9/95-5/97
Graduate Teaching Assistant, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD
−−Introductory chemistry lecture - graded exams, homework, held weekly help sessions
−−Introductory organic chemistry lecture - graded exams, held daily help sessions
−−Intermediate chemistry lecture - graded exams, homework, held weekly help sessions

Other Work Experience

11/04-2/05
Office Manager, University of Central Florida, School of Film and Digital Media, Orlando, FL

In charge of hiring process for new interactive entertainment academy, conducting searches and organizing files for review.

Laboratory Skills

DNA Extraction, purification, cloning, electrophoresis, PCR, sequencing, and AFLP analysis. RNA extraction and purification. Protein expression, extraction, purification (HPLC) and electrophoresis. Other spectroscopy: ICP-OES, GC-MS, UV-Vis, AA, FT-IR, and CD. Safety concerns: radiation handling, hazardous material and waste management. Experience with writing standard operating procedures. Training personnel and mentoring students in proper lab technique. Buys and maintains supplies and equipment. Expert in experimental design and data analysis.

Computer Skills

MS Word, Excel, Powerpoint. Some experience with SAS. All MS Windows platforms especially XP Professional. Mac OS 9and X and some experience with Unix/Linux based systems.

Publications

Groot, Astrid T; Estock, Marie L.; Horowitz, Joy; Hamilton, Jennifer; Santangelo, Richard G.; Schal, Coby; Gould, Fred (2008) QTL Analysis of Sex Pheromone Blend Differences Between Two Closely Related Moths: Insights Into Biosynthetic Pathway Changes, Submitted to Evolution.

Posters

“Identifying genes that alter moth sexual communication: A combined QTL/candidate gene approach”, Vasquez, Gissella; Estock, Marie; Powell, Rebekah; Ward, Michael; Groot, Astrid; Sheck, Amy; Vickers, Neil; Schal, Coby; Gould, Fred; presented at the National Entomological Society Meeting, December 2007, SanDiego, CA. This work was also presented in a seminar.
http://www4.ncsu.edu/~mlestock/ESA2007.html

Published Abstracts

Estock, M. L.; Brown, K. R.; Winge, D. R.; Tullius, T. D. “Hydroxyl Radical Footprinting of the Tetracopper Domains of CUP2 and AMT1.” 11th Conversation in the Discipline Biomolecular Stereodynamics, Albany, NY, June 1999, Abstract #138, J. Biomol. Struct. Dyn. 1999, 16, 1336.

Personal Interests

Dogs, reading, gardening, quilting, sailing, volleyball, swing and salsa dancing.

JENNIFER EMMERSON
UNDERGRADS

GRADUATE STUDENTS
RACHAEL KATZ STATEMENT
Research Interests

Ecology of Aedes aegypti mosquito populations
Improving control methods of mosquito populations
Applying knowledge of insects to Medical/Veterinary and Agricultural Extension

Research Project
Assessing the impact of density-dependence in larval populations of Aedes aegypti

Aedes aegypti is a vector of Dengue Fever, the most important vector-borne virus affecting humans in the world. A. aegypti is a container breeding mosquito that preferentially feeds on humans. Females lay their eggs in containers of water that are found in and around people’s homes. In many countries, where Dengue Fever is prevalent, it is a natural situation for people to store water in containers in their houses. They also leave many containers in their yard, which collect rain water. All of these containers with water provide an ideal habitat for A. aegypti eggs. Current control methods for A. aegypti are not effective and new efforts are looking at using genetically modified mosquitoes. These genetically modified mosquitoes are refractory to the Dengue virus and are being looked at to replace the natural population of mosquitoes. Before thinking of releasing mosquitoes, we need to know everything about the biology of the natural population. Knowing the ecology and biology of the mosquito can help us create mathematical models to predict the outcome of releasing genetically modified mosquitoes.

My thesis project is looking at the impact of density-dependence in larval populations of A. aegypti. Many studies have been done in a laboratory setting, but very few studies have looked at density-dependence in the field. I am doing all of my experiments in Tapachula, MX, where A. aegypti and dengue fever are prevalent. To keep this study as natural as possible, all of the containers I am investigating are natural containers from peoples’ houses. I am only using natural water, food, and larvae already present in the containers when they are found. I am comparing differences in development between larvae in low density and high density groups. All of the data acquired will be used as a parameter for the Skeeter Buster model that is being worked on by Mathieu Legros.

RACHAEL KATZ CV
Rachael S. Katz
Box 7634
Department of Entomology
North Carolina State University
Raleigh, NC, 27695
Phone: (919) 515-1650
Email: rachael_katz@ncsu.edu

Education

2007- Present
North Carolina State University: Raleigh, North Carolina
Masters Student

2004
Tulane University: New Orleans, Louisiana,
Overall GPA: 3.001
Bachelor of Science, Evolutionary and Ecological Biology, GPA: 3.12
Bachelor of Science, Psychology, GPA: 3.52
- Dean’s List 2003, 2004

Related Courses of Study

〮Insect Morph/Physiology
〮Medical/Veterinary ENT
〮Vertebrate Morphology
〮Processes of Evolution
〮Conservation Biology
〮Biology
〮Molecular Biology
〮Cell Biology
〮General Chemistry
〮Organic Chemistry
〮Genetics
〮Insect Systematics
〮Statistics
〮General Physics
〮Probability and Statistics
〮General Biology Lab
〮General Chemistry Lab
〮Organic Chemistry lab
〮Ecology
〮Ecology Lab
〮Comparative Animal Behavior
〮Ornithology

Research and Work Experience

2005-2007
Laboratory Manager/Laboratory Technician I,
North Carolina State University
Entomology Department - Dr. Fred Gould
〮Maintain lab colonies of caterpillars Heliothis virescens and Heliothis subflexa
〮Helped design and conduct mating experiments in cages and greenhouse
〮Pheromone gland extraction and GC component analysis
〮Single pair mating of lines hybridized Heliothis virescens and Heliothis subflexa
〮Rearing of numerous hybrid lines
〮Purchasing and maintenance of inventories of lab supplies
〮Hiring, training and supervision of student workers and temporary employees

2005
Field Assistant,
North Carolina State University
Entomology Department - Assisted in research of
Dr. Fred Gould
〮Setup field sites and experiments
〮Designed and constructed new female containers
〮Trapped moths using pheromone traps and live female moths
〮Identified Heliothis virescens and Heliothis subflexa male moths
〮Pheromone gland extraction from females moths
〮Data entered, organized and stored using Excel

2004
Field Assistant, Great Exuma Island, Bahamas
Assisted in research of Erin Marnocha, UCLA
〮Captured Anolis sagrei lizards using noose method
〮Subdermally injected lizards with colored elastomer [for identification]
〮Measured vegetation for perch diameter and height
〮Deployed thermocouples to simulate lizard body temperature
〮Helped locate and setup new field sites
〮Constructed clay lizards to assess predation in the field
〮Data entered, organized and stored using Excel

2004
Field Assistant, Washington University
Biology Department, St. Louis
Assisted in research of Dr. Jonathan Chase
〮Setup field experiments
〮Performed Deer surveys
〮Using Gravid traps and Light traps, trapped mosquitoes
〮Identified mosquitoes
〮Tested mosquitoes for West Nile virus
〮Collected and identified ticks
〮Measured and watered Arabidopsis plants
〮Maintained caterpillar colonies
〮Data entered, organized and stored using Excel

2004
Research Assistant, Tulane University
Biology Department, New Orleans
Assisted in research of Dr. Duncan Irschick.
〮Digitized insect movies using Peak Motus software
〮Analyzed linear acceleration, linear velocity and quintic spline processing of insects
〮Preparatory to publication, participated in analysis and discussion of manuscripts regarding Evolutionary and Ecological processes and theories

2003
Research Intern, Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, St. Louis
Assisted in research of Dr. Daniel Schachtman
〮Lab research specific to plant potassium transporters
〮Presented research and authored scientific report on research review and results
〮Planted / plated seeds of Arabidopsis
〮Screened Arabidopsis plants for homozygous resistance to antibiotics
〮Stained plants deploying GUS reporter gene to determine expression and
localization of potassium transporters
〮Laboratory techniques included use of microscope, GUS staining, media and solution preparation, slide preparation

Professional Memberships
2007- Present
North Carolina Entomology Society
2007- Present
NCSU Entomology Graduate Student Association

SANDRA PAA CV
Curriculum Vitae

CONTACT INFORMATION:
Sandra Paa
Campus Box 1575, 2730 Wolf Village Way
Raleigh, NC 27607
828.553.4822
sapaa@ncsu.edu

EDUCATION:
Graduate School:
N. C. State University
Department of Entomology
Current Master’s Degree Student

Undergraduate Degree:
B.S. in Biological Sciences
Minors in History and Entomology
North Carolina State University
December 2007

INTERESTS:
I am currently pursuing my Master’s Degree in Entomology in the Gould Lab, and beginning studies in population genetics, using the model, Drosophila melanogaster, to observe the movement of Killer and Rescue alleles in gene-drive mechanism simulations. The later goal, following the potential successes in the fruit fly experiments, would be to observe killer and rescue systems with anti-pathogen constructs, in the Dengue Fever-carrying mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

I am also a rather creative and artistic person, and have been, since childhood. I love to express myself through wildlife artwork, and I typically create pen-and-ink work, but also produce watercolor and colored pencil work when time allows. After obtaining my Master’s, and learning what I can about the world of the Arthropods, I am interested in pursuing biological illustration.

I also had a wonderful internship in the NC Museum of Natural Sciences, in Downtown Raleigh, in the Arthropod Zoo, where I learned to rear and display hundreds of different species of insects, spiders, scorpions, centipedes, millipedes, and crustaceans. Another career interest of mine would lie in curation of museums, as I have a great interest in the natural history of all organisms (not just the arthropods!) and how they fit in their respective places on the earth. I enjoyed setting up exhibits and learning about the exact nature of obtaining collections and curating them, and understanding how important taxonomy is to a credible museum collection.

EMPLOYMENT HISTORY:
Graduate Research Assistant (January 2008-Present)
N. C. State University
Department of Entomology
Studies in Population Genetics with regard to Killer-Rescue Gene Drive Mechanisms

Laboratory Technician Assistant (May 2007-January 2008)
N. C. State University
Department of Entomology
Rearing and Maintaining laboratory populations of Heliothis virescens and H. subflexa moths

Assistant to the Curator (January 2007-May 2007)
N. C. Museum of Natural Sciences
Arthropod Zoo
Internship position, during which I experienced a great knowledge and skill set for care of a wide variety of arthropods

PUBLICATIONS:
None as yet

PROFESSIONAL MEMBERSHIPS:
North Carolina Entomological Society
Member as of July 2007

JENNIFER PETZOLD STATEMENT
Research Description
My research focuses on answering questions about plant-herbivore interactions. I use plants in the genus Physalis (for example, tomatillo) and the specialist caterpillar Heliothis subflexa to examine how plants and insects reciprocally affect each other’s evolutionary trajectories. Physalis plants have evolved several defenses against its specialist herbivore H. subflexa. One such defense is the abscission of fruit on which H. subflexa feeds, resulting in exposure to harsh environmental conditions and predation as the caterpillar makes its way back onto the plant. Another is the formation of necrotic and tumor-like tissue under H. subflexa eggs that are laid on the leaves of Physalis plants, resulting in a decrease in the percent of eggs that hatch. It appears that H. sublexa has evolved defenses against Physalis plants; preliminary data suggest that they can ‘sense’ when a fruit they are feeding on is about to fall, and leave the fruit before abscission. I study the ecological aspects of these interactions using an experimental approach in both the lab and field.

Another focus of my research is to understand the genetic architecture of host use. Over 90% of all insects specialize on one or just a few plant species, but there are many unanswered questions about how much of a genetic change is needed for an insect to change its host use over evolutionary time. I am using two closely related insects to determine the genetic architecture of host use: the specialist H. subflexa, (feeds on one genus of plants) and the tobacco budworm (H. virescens), a generalist that feeds on plants in 14 families, many of them of agriculture importance. By taking advantage of the fact that these two closely related insects with vastly different host ranges can be mated in the lab and produce fertile female offspring, our lab can produce hybrid and backcrossed individuals from these two species. I test each of these backcrossed individuals to determine its host range (which plants the insect lays eggs on and eats). I will use a QTL analysis to determine which chromosomes are important for host use, and to determine how much of a genetic change is necessary for a change in host use over evolutionary time.

I am also very interested in teaching, and I have taken part in a teaching program here at NCSU to gain hands on experience teaching undergraduates. My goal is to teach and run a small research program at a small- to medium-sized college.

_
JENNIFER PETZOLD CV
JENNIFER L. PETZOLD
jennifer_petzold@unity.ncsu.edu
North Carolina State University
Dept. of Plant Biology • P.O. Box 7634 • Raleigh, NC 27695 • (919) 515-1651

EDUCATION
2004-present
Ph.D. candidate, North Carolina State University, Raleigh NC

May 2003
Trinity College: Hartford, CT. Bachelor of Science (honors in biology, honors in general scholarship) Biology Major, Environment and Human Values Minor; Cumulative GPA: 3.88; graduated 10th out of 553.

RESEARCH AND WORK EXPERIENCE

Aug 2004-present
North Carolina State University: Raleigh, NC
PhD Candidate: Studying interactions between plants in the genus Physalis and the herbivore Heliothis subflexa. Advisor: Dr. Fred Gould.

Jun 2003-Jun 2004
Morris Arboretum: Philadelphia, PA
Flora of Pennsylvania Intern: (internship for Academy of Natural Sciences and the University of Pennsylvania). Developed and executed a study of distribution and abundance of a rare plant in Pennsylvania. At the Academy of Natural Sciences Herbarium (PH), implemented a project on occurrence of rare plants in PA, DE and NJ, including databasing, curation, and herbarium sheet preparation.

Jan 2000-May 2003
Biology Department, Trinity College: Hartford, CT
Laboratory Researcher: Examined the relationship between plastids and the cytoskeleton of Characean algae. Honors thesis title: Chloroplast and Actin Associations in Several Algal Species Involved in Algal-Sacoglossan Symbiosis. Freshman and Sophomore years: Analyzed the extraembryonic membrane morphology of snake eggs/embryos using light and transmission electron microscopy.

May 2002-Aug 2002
Harvard Forest, Harvard University: Petersham, MA
Plant Ecology Researcher: Designed and conducted an intensive three month experiment examining the effects of elevated levels of carbon dioxide on ragweed photosynthetic levels, growth, architecture and reproduction.

Sept 2001-Dec 2001
The School for Field Studies: Queensland, Australia
Student: Studied for 3 months in the tropical rainforest of Australia. Acquired knowledge and skills in environmental issues and fieldwork. Lived in a cabin in the rainforest with other students while enrolling in 3 classes and engaging in a 4-week research project which entailed investigating and analyzing past and present land use in a particular area using methods including Arcview GIS 3.2.

EDUCATION EXPERIENCE

Aug 2007-May 2008
North Carolina State University: Raleigh, NC
Preparing the Professoriate Participant: Chosen and funded to participate in a graduate professional development program. Designed semester-long projects in two undergraduate ecology courses under mentorship by distinguished faculty members. Aided in exam and study sheet formulation, designed and implemented active learning exercises, and taught lectures. Participated in nine teaching seminars and workshops.

Jun 2006-Aug 2006
North Carolina State University: Raleigh, NC
Mentor: Assisted an undergraduate student with a summer research project and poster presentation. Poster title: Physical reaction of Physalis leaves in response to oviposition by Heliothis subflexa.

Jan 2006-May 2006
North Carolina State University: Raleigh, NC
Teaching Assistant. Course: Local Flora, Plant Biology Dept.: Taught several lectures, co-led field trips, mentored students individually in plant identification.

AWARDS AND FELLOWSHIPS

2008 NC Academy of Sciences – Bryden Graduate Research Award Recipient ($1,000)
2007 Preparing the Professoriate Fellowship Recipient
2007 North Carolina Entomological Society Poster Competition – First place
2007 NCSU Botany Zoology Student Symposium –
2007: First place
2005, 2007 NCSU Plant Biology Student Symposium -
2007: Second place; 2005: First place

PROFESSIONAL MEMBERSHIPS AND LEADERSHIP ACTIVITIES

2008-present Ecological Society of America
2008-present North Carolina Academy of Science
2007-present North Carolina Entomological Society
2006-present Botanical Society of America
2007-present Phi Kappa Phi
2003-present Phi Beta Kappa
2003-2004 Philadelphia Botanical Club, Secretary
2002-2003 Biology Club President, Trinity College

PUBLICATIONS

Petzold, J.P. et al., in prep. Fruit abscission by Physalis species in response to herbivory.

Stinson, K.A., J.H. Tran, and J.L. Petzold, and F.A. Bazzaz (2006). Architectural and physiological mechanisms of reduced size inequality in CO2-enriched stands of common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisifolia). Global Change Biology 12 (9): 1680-1689.

Blackburn D.G., A.R. Johnson, J.L. Petzold (2003). Histology of the extraembryonic membranes of an oviparous snake: towards a reconstruction of basal squamate patterns. Journal of Experimental Zoology 299A: 48-58.

Blackburn DG, A.R. Johnson, and J.L. Petzold (2000). Histology of the extramembronic membrane of the oviparous corn snake, Elaphe guttata. American Zoologist. 39(5): 115-116.

(abstracts of the annual meeting) Blackburn, D.G., A.R. Johnson, and J.L. Petzold (2003). Placental ultrastructure in the brown snake Storeria dekayi. Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology, Toronto Canada (January 2003). SICB 2002.

(abstract) A.R. Johnson, J.L. Petzold, and D.G. Blackburn (2002). Morphology and evolution of fetal membranes in snakes. Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology, regional meeting of the Division of Vertebrate Morphology, Harvard University, Cambridge Massachusetts. September 2002.

(abstract) Blackburn, D.G., J.L. Petzold, and A. R. Johnson (2001). Cytology of the developing extraembryonic membranes of an oviparous snake (Elaphe guttata) Sixth International Congress of Vertebrate Morphology. University of Jena, Germany (July 2001). Journal of Morphology 248: 207.

(abstract) Blackburn, D.G., A.R. Johnson, and J.L. Petzold (2000). Histology of the extraembryonic membranes of the oviparous corn snake, Elaphe guttata. Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology, Chicago, Illinois (January 2001). American Zoologist 39 (5): 114-115.

MICHAEL WARD STATEMENT
The goal of my research is to understand how genetic changes lead to differences in
pheromone components between the two closely related species Heliothis subflexa (HS)
and Heliothis virescens (HV). Previous work in this lab has used AFLP to find QTLs that
are related to differences in pheromone blend. HS and HV are so closely related that they
can be mated to produce hybrids. By backcrossing the hybrids back to wild type HS or
HV, chromosomes from one species are inserted into the other. The backcrosses can then
be genotyped and their pheromone blends analyzed (phenotyped). Based on the work of
Amy Sheck it is possible to determine on which chromosome a particular QTL exists
(Sheck et al. 2006). By determining, which chromosomes have been inserted into the
background of the wild type moth and comparing that to the phenotype it is possible to
relate a certain chromosome to certain phenotypic variations.

My research uses a candidate gene approach; I am looking for genes that are likely to be important in producing some component of the pheromone blend and relating them to a QTL. Previous work with H. assulta and H. zea has examined acyl-CoA desaturase encoding cDNAs and described two desaturases that appear to be important based on their abundance in the pheromone gland (Knipple et. al. 2002; Rosenfield et. al. 2001). In H. assulta and H. zea the most abundant desaturases in the pheromone gland are a Δ11 and a Δ9. Since, the different pheromone components that we see in HS and HV could be produced by the combined action of a Δ11 and a Δ9 desaturase. My research focuses on what changes happen when a HS chromosome containing the coding region for one of these desaturases is inserted into an HV background (or vice versa) and determining if a desaturase could explain the differences observed.

_
MICHAEL WARD CV
Michael Ward

EDUCATION

Salisbury University, Salisbury MD
2006
BA/BS Majors: Biological Science, Philosophy, and Psychology
Minors: Mathematics and Computer Science

2006 – Present
North Caroline State University, Raleigh NC
MS(Candidate) Major: Entomology

RESEARCH EXPERIENCE

2008
Genetics of sex pheromones: mapping desaturase genes in Heliothis species
Analyzed candidate genes likely to be involved in the production of specific components in the sex pheromone blends of certain Heliothis species. Mapped desaturase sequences and compared to QTLs for differences in proportions of pheromone components.

2006
Hybridization of South America Larrea: Spatial and Genetic Analyses
Co-directed the analysis of ISSR data using the following applications (POPGENE, PAUP, Mr. Bayes, Alleles in Space, Mantel Test). Developed a new type of probability analysis using molecular marker data. Other duties were training of lab assistants, current literature collection (Endnote 5), and ordering of supplies.

2006
Polyploidy in North American Larrea: Analyses of Multiple Genetic Data Sets
Co-directed analyses of RFLP, ISSR, and cpDNA sequence data. There was a large molecular database that was collected over four years. Sequence alignment and analysis programs were utilized (Clustal W, BioEdit, PAUP).

2005
Genetic Determination of Invasive Genotypes of Phragmites australis
Responsibilities included: DNA extraction (Qiagen method), proficiency with PCR and electrophoresis, restriction digests, and produced contract report for client.

PRESENTATIONS

2008
Entomology Graduate Student Association – Student Symposium – Talk
2005
Botanical Society of America Annual Meeting, Austin, TX – Poster
2000
Salisbury University Undergraduate Research Conference – Talk

PUBLICATIONS

Ward, M., Groot, A., Sheck, A., Estock, M., Schal, C., and Gould, F. Genetics of sex pheromones: mapping desaturase genes in Heliothis species. (In preparation for submission in summer 2008).

Ward, M., Hunter, K., Kolar, E., Wallace, C., Harris, M., Peralta, I., Hunter, R. ISSR investigations of naturally occurring hybrids of Larrea (Zygophyllaceae) in South America. (In preparation for submission in late 2008).

Hunter, K., Gordon, A., Jenkins, L., Murfree, J., Ward, M., and Hunter, R. How do the North American polyploids fit into the evolutionary history of Larrea. (In preparation for submission in late 2008).

SKILLS

Computer
Experienced with Unix, Mac OS X, and Windows operating systems and application software
Familiar with Open Office for Unix, and Microsoft Office for Windows XP and OS X
Experienced with 3D graphics programming, and graphics software including Photoshop and Paintshop
Systems Administration experience with SunSparc systems using the Solaris operating systems
Programming in PERL, Lisp, C++ and Macromedia Flash

Laboratory
Extracting DNA and RNA and isolating mRNA
Silencing gene expression by application of RNAi technology
DNA cloning and protein purification
Sequence alignment and analysis using Clustal X, Mr. Bayes, PAUP and Alleles in Space
SDS-PAGE and isozyme electrophoresis

Other
Extra undergrad coursework in Linguistics, Physics, Classical Studies, Sociology and Economics
Trained in non-profit management and administration
Experienced as a counselor for at risk youth
Certified in first aid and CPR

HONORS AND ACTIVITIES

Guerrieri Summer Research Fellowship
SU Henson Undergraduate Research Grant
Member of Beta Beta Beta, National Honor Society in Biology
Served on InterCorps Council during AmeriCorps Service
Member of Phi Sigma Tau, National Honor Society in Philosophy
Member of Psi Chi, National Honor Society in Psychology
President of Mathematical Association of America, SU Chapter
Meritorious winner of Mathematical Contest in Modeling

TEACHING EXPERIENCE

Teaching assistant (2007), ENT 063: Turf & Ornamental Insect Pests. Assigned and graded quizzes, prepared laboratory learning experiences and delivered weekly lectures in lab.

WORK EXPERIENCE

2005 – 2006
Salisbury University – Teaching and Learning Services
Working with faculty and staff to get instructional materials on the internet
Developing Macromedia Flash content

2001 (Summer)
University of Maryland Center for Environmental Education/ Horn Point Lab
Installed and tested Ethernet
Developed web pages for individual labs

2000 – 2001
Department of Mathematics and Computer Science – Assistant Systems Administrator
Assisted students with learning the Solaris OS and Unix Programming
Maintaining computers and attending to network security concerns

PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATIONS

2007 – present
Entomological Society of America
2005 – 2006
Society for Mathematical Biology
2000 – 2003
Association for Computing Machinists

VOLUNTEER AND NATIONAL SERVICE EXPERIENCE

2003 – 2004
AmeriCorps National Service Network – Volunteer Maryland!
Created and supervised a volunteer program for a family center

2002 – 2003
AmeriCorps National Service Network – Partnership for Adolescents
Served as a counselor to middle school students and tutored in all major subjects

2002 – 2003
Habitat for Humanity – Salisbury University Chapter
All types of general construction activities

2001 – 2003
Dorchester County Humane Society
Socialized with animals and helped maintain the shelter

COLLABORATORS & ALUMNI
Astrid Groot
Laura Harrington
Bruce Hay
David Heckel
Tony James
Alun Lloyd
Tom Scott
Neil Vickers

Joyner, Kimberly
M.S, 1982
Scientific writer
Thesis: "Developmental consequences of cannibalism in Heliothis zea Boddie (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on suboptimal diet."

Villani, Michael
Ph.D., 1984
Associate Professor, Cornell Univesity (deceased)
Thesis: "Feeding and movement patterns of wireworms in response to biotic and abiotic factors."

Meinke, Lance
Ph.D., 1984
Professor, University of Nebraska
Thesis: "Phenology and ovipositional ecology of the southern corn rootworm, Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi Barber, in eastern North Carolina."

Waldvogel, Mike
Ph.D., 1986
N.C. State University, Extension Specialist
Thesis: "Genetic variation in oviposition preference in Heliothis virescens (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)."

Nalepa, Christine
Ph.D.*, 1987
N.C. Dept. Agriculture, Research Scientist
Thesis: "Life history studies of the woodroach Cryptocercus punctulatus Scudder (Dictyoptera: Cryptocercidae) and their implications for the evolution of termite eusociality."

Landis, Douglas
Professor, Michigan State
Ph.D., 1986
Thesis: "Assessing the utility of the feeding deterrent approach to crop protection."
M.S.*, 1984
Thesis: "Effects of no-tillage corn and soybean production on the behavior, development and survival of Heliothis zea (Boddie) prepupae and pupae."

Suiter, Karl
Ph.D., 1991
NSF/NCSU IPM Center supervisor/computer programmer
Thesis: "Variation in behavioral response and physiological resistance to residues of four synthetic pesticides in six populations of the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae)."

Follett, Peter
Ph.D., 1993
Research Scientist, USDA
Thesis: "Insecticide resistance management in the Colorado potato beetle."

Sheck, Amy
Ph.D., 1995
North Carolina School of Science and Math
Thesis: "The genetic basis for the evolution of host range in Heliothis virescens (F.)."

Hruska, Allan
Ph.D., 1995
UN Food and Agriculture Program Officer for Latin America
Thesis: "Ecology and economics of insect pest management in maize in Nicaragua."

Johnson, Tracy
Ph.D., 1995
Research Scientist US Forest Service. Hawaii
Thesis: "Influence of natural enemies on the rate of pest adaptation to host plants."
M.S., 1990
Thesis: "Combined effects of genetically engineered host plant resistance and natural enemies on Heliothis populations in tobacco."

Riggin Bucci, Toni
Ph.D., 1995
Research Scientist/ Manager, BASF Corp.
Thesis: "Effects of Bacillus thuringiensis on population dynamics and oviposition behavior of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.)."

Klepetka, Brad
M.S., 1995
Extension Agent Washington State
Thesis: "Assortative mating in Heliothis virescens: impact on resistance management."

Sumerford, Doug
Ph.D., 1997
Research Scientist, USDA
Thesis: "Genetic analysis of adaptation to secondary plant compounds by Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)."

Sisterson, Mark
MS., 1997
Research Scientist, USDA
Thesis "Natural history of Heliothis subflexa in the Southeastern US"

Peck, Steve
Ph.D.*, 1997
Assistant Professor, Brigham Young University
Thesis: "Spatial aspects of the evolution of pesticide resistance: models and recommendations."

Schliekelman, Paul
Ph.D.*, 2000
Assistant Professor, Univ. of Georgia
Thesis: "Population genetic considerations in the development and release of transgenic insect pests"

Oppenheim, Sara
PhD. Student, North Carolina State University
Ph.D., 2006
Proposed Thesis: "The genetic basis for the evolution of specialization in a lepidopteran species."
M.S., 2000
Thesis: "The role of enemy-free space in the evolution of specialized herbivores"

Cabrera, Juan
Ph.D.*, 2002
Research and Policy Scientist, Peruvian government
Thesis: "Tritrophic interactions of Bt-corn, Spodoptera exigua, and natural enemies."

Rennie, Traci
M.S., 2003
Research Assistant NSF/NCSU IPM Center
Thesis: "Assessing Helicoverpa zea host use and movement with stable isotopes"

Bateman, Melanie
Ph.D., 2006
USDA APHIS Scientist
Thesis: "Phylogenetic, geographic, and physiological factors influencing the host range of Heliothis subflexa."

 

CURRENT RESEARCH
Major Research Topics
Evolution of Moth Sexual Communication Systems
Plant-insect interactions
Evolution of resistance in crop pests
Genetic pest management

I. Evolution of Moth Sexual Communication Systems:
A. Fitness of female and male moths with genetically altered pheromone production and response
☍ Quantifying evolutionary forces exerted on moth pheromone communication systems
☍ Assessing the role of pheromone components versus pheromone compounds
☍ Assessing intraspecific, geographic variation in the pheromone communication of Heliothis virescens and Heilothis subflexa
B. Identifying genes that alter moth sexual communication: A combined QTL/candidate Gene approach
☍ Determining the genetic basis of pheromone components in Heliothis virescens and H. subflexa
☍ Determining the genetic basis of male responses to species-specific pheromone compounds in H. virescens and. H. subflexa.

II. Plant - Insect Interactions:
A. Ecological, Behavioral, and Genetic aspects of the host range of Heliothis subflexa
☍ Smart Caterpillars: Can Heliothis subflexa Larvae Sense When Physalis Fruit will Abscise?
☍ Physical Response of Physalis Leaves to Eggs of Heliothis subflexa
☍ Genetics of host range: comparison of an insect generalist and specialist using QTL analysis
B. Tritrophic interactions of herbivore induced plant volatiles
C. Herbivore-induced fruit abscission in the Physalis genus
D. Coevolution of a specialist and its host plant

III. Evolution of Resistance in Crop Pests:
A. Risk of Cross-Resistance to Diverse Bt Toxins
B. Resistance management for transgenic crops
C. The Evolutionary potential of crop pests

IV. Genetic Pest Management:
A. Driving anti-pathogen genes into mosquito species that vector dengue and malaria--Theoretical Analysis
☍ Transgenic insects for disease control
☍ Transposable elements
☍ Engineered underdominance
☍ Meiotic drive
B. Gates Foundation project for developing and testing gene-drive and anti-pathogen genes
☍ Spatial modeling of Aedes aegypti population dynamics and genetics
C. Broadening the application of Genetic Pest Management

Fitness of female and male moths with genetically altered pheromone production and response
Fitness of female and male moths with genetically altered pheromone production and response

NSF—with Coby Schal (2005-2008)

Summary:
Most night-flying moth species locate mates through production of, and response to, a very precise blend of two or more volatile chemical compounds. Within a population, females with atypical blends have been shown to be less attractive to males than females with the population’s common blend. Similarly, rare males that respond to atypical blends have been found to be at a disadvantage in finding mates. The genes that control pheromone blend ratios have never been found to be linked to, or affect male response, so mutations that cause changes in each of the two components of communication are expected to arise independently. On a simple theoretical level, this type of sexual communication system is expected to be evolutionarily constrained or static because an individual with a mutation leading to an altered blend or response will be selected against, when rare. Even if the selective disadvantage to rare individuals with alleles for novel signals or responses is minimal, mass selection is not expected to increase their frequency in the population. Based on these assumptions it is difficult to account for the great diversification of chemical mixtures used in mate communication by over 10,000 moth species.
There are at least three alternative possibilities that could help explain the diverse patterns of chemical communication among moth species: 1) existing studies showing mating disadvantage have mostly focused on a limited set of signals and responses involving ratios of stereoisomers. Stabilizing selection may not act (or act as strongly) on other pheromonal differences, 2) Previous studies did not search for specific environmental conditions in which the selective disadvantage to rare genotypes could be negated, so results may not be representative, 3) it is possible that the population structure of moths enables evolution of new sexual communication systems through a combination of drift and selection.
We propose to examine the first two of these alternatives by identifying and moving quantitative trait loci (QTL) for sexual communication signals and responses between the genetic backgrounds of two closely related Heliothine moth species that differ in multiple signals and responses but can be hybridized in the laboratory (Heliothis virescens and Heliothis subflexa). We will determine if under certain environmental conditions there is no fitness cost to rare individuals with altered pheromones or responses.
More specifically, molecular markers (AFLPs) will be used to map QTL that control presence/absence or the relative concentration of a number of female pheromone components that differ between the two species, and the differences in male response between the species. By use of repeated backcrossing to species A, with selection for a single sexual communication QTL from species B, we will create strains that are approximately 97% genetically identical to species A, but express either a pheromone production allele or a pheromone response allele from species B. These strains will resemble individuals of species A with a single alteration in a sexual communication trait. These strains will be tested for mating success relative to normal individuals of species A in large cages and in the field. (The reciprocal backcrossing regime will be used to move sexual communication QTL from species A into the species B genetic background.) If initial tests indicate a mating disadvantage, we will determine if this disadvantage is negated by interspecific interactions with other moth species. (If the disadvantage persists, future studies (beyond this grant cycle) will need to examine impact of single nucleotide changes within QTLs, as well as the potential importance of genetic drift in this system.)

Quantifying evolutionary forces exerted on moth pheromone communication systems
Astrid Groot, Fred Gould, Coby Schal

Description:
Theoretical and empirical studies have concluded that sexual communication signals in moths are under strong stabilizing selection, a process that constrains evolutionary change. Yet the diversity in moth species and their species-specific pheromone signals in nature is immense, which raises the question of how evolutionary changes in these premating signals occur. We experimentally tested the attractiveness and mating success of females with one genetic change to determine whether such females are 1) at a selective disadvantage to attract conspecific males, and 2) experiencing communication interference by attracting heterospecific males. One quantitative trait locus (QTL) of Heliothis virescens (Hv), constituting only 3% of its genome, was introgressed into the genomic background of the closely related H. subflexa (Hs). This QTL dramatically reduced production of three biosynthetically related acetate ester pheromone gland components that are present in Hs and absent in Hv females. The mating success of backcross females with and without the Hv-QTL was measured in cage experiments, in which they were confined with Hs or Hv males. The backcross females were also tested in field bioassays that measured the attraction of field populations of Hv and Hs males to traps baited with live backcross females with or without the Hv-QTL. Our results provide experimental evidence that reproductive character displacement through communication interference by sympatrically occurring, closely related males can act as a divergent selection force on the olfactory communication channel, which could lead to diversification of sexual signals. Currently we are in the process of isolating another 4 QTL, with which similar fitness experiments will be conducted.

Related Publications:
Groot, Astrid T., Joy L. Horovitz, Jennifer Hamilton, Richard G. Santangelo, Coby Schal, and Fred Gould (2006). Experimental evidence for interspecific directional selection on moth pheremone communication. PNAS 103(15): 5858-5863. (PDF)

Assessing the role of pheromone components versus pheromone compounds
Astrid Groot, Fred Gould, Coby Schal

Description:
Hv and Hs both have multi-component pheromone blends, some of which overlap between the species. The behavioral role of all different pheromone compounds has not been unequivocally clarified yet. It is clear that Hv males are attracted to a minimal 2-component blend of (Z)-11-hexadecenal (Z11-16:Ald) and Z9-14:Ald, while the minimal blend to which Hs males are attracted consists of Z11-16:Ald, Z9-16:Ald and Z11-16:OH. Although these minimal blends attract males, blends comprising all emitted components generally increase male attraction in the field. For example, the Hv minimal two-component blend caught an average of 7.8 Hv males per night, whereas a seven-component blend (adding 14:Ald, 16:Ald, Z7-16:Ald, Z9-16:Ald, and Z11-16:OH) caught 38.1 Hv males per night (Klun et al. 1980a). Several studies tested different combinations of pheromone compound and found antagonistic effects. For instance, Hs attraction was reduced when Z11-16:OH was present in high amounts relative to Z11-16:Ald, while Hv male attraction was reduced when the heterospecific compound Z11-16:OAc was added to the minimal 2-component blend. Some compounds have not been tested systematically, so that their possible role in the sexual communication remains unclear. We are testing the attraction of both Hv and Hs males to different synthetic lures, where either specific compounds are left out, starting from the complete blend, or specific compounds are added to a minimal blend. Treatments are tested concurrently, in complete randomized block designs.

Related Publications:

Assessing intraspecific, geographic variation in the pheromone communication of Heliothis virescens and Heliothis subflexa
Astrid Groot, Fred Gould, Coby Schal

Description:
Since moth pheromone communication systems are so well defined, and our studies have started to quantify the genetic basis of sexual communication in Heliothis moths, my current research goal is to apply this knowledge to the intraspecific variation in H. virescens and H. subflexa. Hv is a generalist and a major agricultural pest in a number of crops in the US. Hs is a specialist and an important pest of tomatillo (Physalis philadelphica Lam.), that is grown commercially in almost every state in Mexico. Both species occur sympatrically in the western hemisphere, and females of both species attract males by emitting multi-component pheromone blends, with overlap between the species in some components. In both species geographic variations in these blends has been found in the past, and by me during preliminary studies conducted in 2004. In May 2005 I received a grant from USDA's NRI as sole PI to continue these studies and conduct genetic analysis on the different populations. Fieldwork will be conducted in North Carolina as well as in Jalisco, Mexico, because substantial differences in population densities of both species are expected between these two sites based on availability of host plants.
This project has 4 specific objectives: a) Determine and quantify possible reproductive isolation between populations. Females, that were collected as larvae in fields at different geographic locations, will be tested in live-female-trap experiments in North Carolina as well as in Mexico. Males from the same populations will be tested in greenhouse cage experiments in North Carolina. b) Assess geographic variation in pheromone composition in Hv and Hs, by sampling gland extracts and volatiles from a number of populations in the US and Mexico. c) Evaluate which of the pheromone components are important in the sexual communication of Hv and Hs, and whether this differs between regions. Based on the information gathered from Objective 1 and 2, synthetic lure experiments will be conducted in North Carolina as well as in Mexico. d) Determine whether and which interspecific QTL overlap with intraspecific QTL. The collection of larvae from different regions, and the analysis of regional pheromone compositions, provide a unique opportunity to determine whether intraspecific regional differences can be explained by DNA fragments (QTL) that are homologous to the interspecific QTL that we have found in the past. Comparing inter- and intraspecific polymorphisms is a powerful tool to localize the genomic regions that have been involved in speciation. If there is overlap between intra- and interspecific QTL, this points to prezygotic 'speciation' QTL.

Related Publications:

Identifying genes that alter moth sexual communication: A combined QTL/candidate Gene approach --- USDA/NRI

Rationale:
Moths use a very specific set of chemical signals (pheromones) and olfactory responses to find mates. A better understanding of the genes that control moth mate finding could enable us to more efficiently disrupt moth populations. There have been recent breakthroughs in identifying some genes that are involved in female signal production and male response. A next important step in this work is to determine what types changes in the DNA sequences of these genes and related genes are responsible for altering the specific signal production of females and the specific response profiles of males. Heliothis virescens and Heliothis subflexa are two closely related moth pests. These species differ substantially in their signals and responses, but they can mate in the lab and produce fertile backcross offspring. We used repeated backcrosses to move blocks of genes (QTL) associated with signal production and male response of H. virescens into the genomic background of H. subflexa, and vice versa. We have also tentatively identified one candidate gene for male response within one of these blocks of genes. We propose to use a number of genomic methods to identify other genes that affect signals and responses. Once we have identified these genes we will determine which allelic differences between the H. virescens and H. subflexa genes appear to cause the differences between the signals and responses of these two species.

Approach:
We will test male receptor genes and pheromone processing genes to determine which ones are tightly linked to QTL associated with male response. The candidate genes that are associated with major QTL are likely to be coding for proteins that affect male response, and they will be used to screen existing BAC libraries of the moth species. Positive clones will be sequenced to look for allelic differences in the sequences of these genes. A survey of intraspecific allelic differences will be used to identify sequence changes that do not affect male response. There are few candidate genes for pheromone biosynthesis. We will use cDNA-AFLP and protein analysis to examine differences between pure species females and females from strains in which about 3% of the genes (or less) come from the alternate species and have altered pheromone blends. We will determine which differences are tightly linked to QTL, and will use probe BAC libraries to find coding and regulatory sequences of the genes involved. As with male response we will use intraspecific comparisons to narrow the list of sequence changes that could be involved in altered pheromone biosynthesis.

Determining the genetic basis of pheromone components in Heliothis virescens and
Heliothis subflexa
Astrid Groot, Amy Sheck, Fred Gould, Coby Schal

Description:
Attraction between the sexes through pheromones is a general phenomenon, but studied most thoroughly in insects. Long-range attraction, i.e. the first phase of sexual behavior, can lead to premating isolation, which may be the primary cause of speciation in many taxa. This phase is particularly well defined in moths, where highly specific, long distance sex pheromones are essential for the mating success and reproductive isolation of species. The evolutionary processes that resulted in the diversity of moth pheromone communication systems are not understood, because the communication traits seem to be under stabilizing selection: within populations intraspecific variation in female signal and male response is low and deviations from the mean lead to lower mating fitness. Also, female signals and male responses are two independent traits that are regulated by separate sets of genes. One possible scenario of how evolution may occur is that a change in the production and response can be selectively advantageous to inhibit attraction of other species, e.g. other (closely related) moth species, or predators or parasitoids. When there is no selective advantage to rare mutants, evolution may occur through drift.
To experimentally determine how changes in multi-component pheromone blends in moths can evolve, we set out to determine the genetic basis of their multi-component blends. We hybridized and reciprocally backcrossed the two closely related species, Heliothis virescens (Hv) and H. subflexa (Hs) and phenotyped and genotyped backcross-1 (BC1) females in both directions. The markers that we use for genotyping each female are amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fragments. Our AFLP protocol is adapted from Remington et al. (1999). DNA is subsequently restricted and ligated with EcoR1 and Mse1. The fragments are pre-amplified using PCR, and selectively amplified with specific M and E primer pairs. AFLP fragments are separated based on size with a LI-COR 4200 sequencer. In general, Lepidoptera contain 30 autosomes and one sex chromosome, so that each chromosome should, on average, include approximately 3% of the insect's DNA. The 3% level of QTL resolution is similar to or finer than that in many QTL analyzes where recombination is present.

Relevant publications:
Sheck, A.L., A.T. Groot, C.M. Ward, C. Gemeno, J. Wang, C. Brownie, C. Schal, and F. Gould. 2006. Genetics of sex pheremone blend differences between Heliothis virescens and Heliothis subflexa: a chromosome mapping approach. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 19: 600-617. (PDF)

Groot, A.T., C. Ward, J. Wang, A. Pokrzywa, J. O'Brien, J. Bennett, J. Kelly, R.G. Santangelo, C. Schal & F. Gould. 2004. Introgressing pheromone QTL between species: towards and evolutionary understanding of differentiation in sexual communication. Journal of Chemical Ecology 30: 2495-2514. (PDF)

Groot, A.T., Y. Fan, C. Brownie, R.A. Jurenka, F. Gould & C. Schal. 2005. Effect of PBAN on pheromone production in mated Heliothis virescens and Heliothis subflexa females. Journal of Chemical Ecology 31: 15-28. (PDF)

Determining the genetic basis of male responses to species-specific pheromone compounds in
H. virescens and. H. subflexa.
By: Gissela Vásquez

Description:
Coming Soon

Related Publications:
Identifying genes that alter moth sexual communication: A combined QTL/candidate gene approach. (POSTER)

Is pheromone receptor sequence variation involved in differential pheromone perception by two Heliothis moths? (POSTER)

Genetics of Host Range: Comparison of an Insect Generalist and Specialist using QTL Analysis
By: Jennifer Petzold

Seed plants and the insects that feed on them make up half of all described species on the planet. Both the rate and the magnitude at which diversification of these groups has occurred is unmatched by most other taxa. Therefore, these two groups provide ideal systems for answering many important ecological questions regarding how biodiversity is generated. Many insects feed primarily on one or several closely related plant species (specialists), while others use many different plant species as hosts (generalists). Understanding the evolution of host range is one of the foremost goals in the field of plant-herbivore interactions, and although this issue has been increasingly addressed in the past several decades, many questions still remain. Despite the fact that 90% of insects are specialists, phylogenetic evidence indicates that specialization is not an evolutionary end point and that host plant range can continue to expand and contract over time. What we don’t know is how much of a genetic change is needed for an insect to modify its host range. Is a change in host use caused by an accumulation of many small genetic changes over evolutionary time, or several large changes? Elucidating the genetic basis of host range evolution will allow for a better understanding of how speciation can occur and how the diversity of plant-feeding (phytophagous) insects has arisen, and will also provide insight on methods for controlling agricultural pest species.

Heliothis subflexa and Heliothis virescens are two closely related moths species that differ vastly in their host use. H. subflexa is a specialist, only feeding on plants in the genus Physalis, while H. virescens (tobacco budworm) is a broad generalist that feeds on over 14 plant families. These species do not hybridize in nature, but will mate when housed together in small containers. The ability to hybridize these two species and the distinct differences in their host ranges provide a unique opportunity to examine the genetic basis of differences in host use between generalists and specialists.

FIGURE

My goal is to determine how much of a genetic change is needed for species to change their host utilization. To do this, H. subflexa and H. virescens will be hybridized, and hybrids will be mated with parent species, resulting in backcrossed individuals that will be segregating for H. subflexa and H. virescens host range genes. I will then use these backcrossed insects in feeding and oviposition assays to determine host preference. By doing a genetic analysis on these individuals, I will be able to estimate how many loci are important for host utilization.

In November and December of 2007, crosses of H. subflexa and H. virescens were performed, and female hybrids were mated with both of the parent species, resulting in segregating backcrossed individuals that contained approximately 75% of the 31 chromosomes from one species, and 25% from the other. We performed feeding experiments on these backcrossed individuals using tobacco (host for the generalist) and Physalis (host for the specialist). We will also determine oviposition preference for backcrossed individuals this summer in large field cages.

After all phenotypes have been recorded, genetic analyses will be used to determine the parental origin of each of the 31 chromosomes in the tested individuals. Since no recombination occurs in female Lepidoptera, chromosomes become useful linkage groups. Thus, each of the 31 chromosomes is considered a single QTL (quantitative trait locus). Methods in our lab allow us to determine the parental origin of each of the 31 chromosomes for each individual moth. After determining the parental origin of each chromosome in the tested individuals, we will perform statistical analyses using the phenotypic data from these individuals to determine which QTL (chromosomes) explain the most variation in host choice. By using these methods, we will be able to

Tritrophic interactions of herbivore induced
plant volatiles
Molly Puente

(photo by Scott Bauer, USDA ARS)

Description:
It has been shown that herbivory can elicit the release of plant volatile chemicals. These volatiles can be used by parasitoids to locate potential hosts, thus providing the plants with a form of indirect defense. It is unclear why it has evolved in some systems and not others. For instance, parasitoids of generalist herbivores respond to volatiles from some host plants but not others. What has made one volatile signal more relevant than the other signals to the parasitoid? Using computer modeling, we can look at variables such as the plant's response rate to herbivory and the spatial dispersal of the volatiles to determine what factors could restrict a parasitoid's ability to use herbivore induced plant volatiles. Not only will these models provide a new framework to look at the evolution of current tritrophic systems, but the modeling can also address future problems that might arise from either breeding or creating transgenic plants that have altered volatile production systems by identifying potentially ineffective parameters.

Related Publications:
Puente, M., Magori, K., Kennedy, G. G., & F. Gould. 2008. Impact of herbivore-induced plant volatiles on parasitoid foraging success: a spatial simulation of the Cotesia rubecula, Pieris rapae, and Brassica oleracea system. Journal of Chemical Ecology. (PDF)

Puente, M., Kennedy, G. G., & F. Gould. 2008. Impact of herbivore-induced plant volatiles on parasitoid foraging success: A General Deterministic
Model. Journal of Chemical Ecology. (PDF)

Coevolution of a Specialist and Its Host Plant
Melanie Bateman, Sara Oppenheim, Mark Sisterson, Amy Sheck, Fred Gould

Description:
The larvae of Heliothis subflexa (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) feed specifically on plants in the genus Physalis. We are interested in studying what physiological and behavioral adaptations lead this caterpillar to specialize while one of its closest relatives, Heliothis virescens, is a generalist.

Related Publications:
Sisterson, Mark S. and Fred L. Gould. (1999) The Inflated Calyx of Physalis angluata: a Refuge From Parasitism for Heliothis subflexa. Ecology, 80(3): 1071-1075 (PDF)

Oppenheim, Sara and Fred Gould (2002). Is Attraction Fatal? The Effects of Herbivore-Induced Plant Volatiles on Herbivore Parasitism. Ecology, 83(12): 3416-3425 (PDF)

Oppenheim, Sara and Fred Gould (2002). Behavioral Adaptations Increase the Value of Enemy-free Space for Heliothis subflexa, a Specialist Herbivore. Evolution, 56(4): 679-689 (PDF)

Smart Caterpillars: Can Heliothis subflexa Larvae Sense When Physalis Fruit will Abscise?
By: Jennifer Petzold

Heliothis subflexa caterpillars are specialists that feed on plants in the genus Physalis. Larvae feed on the fruit of Physalis plants, where they are enclosed in the inflated calyx that surrounds the fruit, a characteristic shared by all plants in this genus. This inflated calyx provides a structural refuge for H. subflexa, and has been shown to be one of the causal factors for uncharacteristically low parasitism rates by the parasitoid Cardiochiles nigriceps. H. subflexa larvae bore a hole into the
calyx to reach the enclosed fruit, and must consume several fruit in order to complete development. Physalis plants have evolved to abscise fruit in response to herbivory by H. subflexa as a defense mechanism. If a caterpillar is inside a fruit when it abscises, it must find its way back onto the plant and can risk attack by parasitoids and predators.

Because of pressure from parasitism and predation, one would expect larvae to consume a whole fruit before leaving its protected area in the calyx to consume another. However, fruit fed upon by H. subflexa larvae are often only partially eaten. We hypothesized that larvae are able to ‘sense’ when fruit are about to abscise, and leave a fruit just before abscission to avoid falling with it. To test this hypothesis, observational studies in the greenhouse were done to determine if larvae leave fruit just before
abscission. Preliminary data suggest that they can ‘sense’ when fruit are about to fall, and leave several hours prior to fruit abscission. Further experiments are being conducted this summer to verify these results.

Physical Response of Physalis Leaves to Eggs of
Heliothis subflexa
By: Jennifer Petzold

The moth Heliothis subflexa is a specialist herbivore whose larvae feed only on fruits of plants in the genus Physalis. In response to eggs laid by H. subflexa, plants in the genus Physalis sometimes form 1) a tumor-like growth (neoplasm), 2) necrotic tissue, or 3) both necrosis and neoplasmic growth under the eggs of these insect herbivores (see photos below). The goal of this study was to 1) determine if these reactions by the plant to the presence of H. subflexa eggs affected egg viability, and if so, whether this effect differed with plant age or species, and 2) determine if the probability of a response to an egg was affected by the location of the egg on the plant, plant age, or plant species. Reactions to eggs were characterized for Physalis angulata and Physalis pubescens. The presence of a response under an egg significantly decreased the probability that an egg would hatch (from 68% to 53%). This decrease in egg viability was similar for both plant species and both age classes of plants. Egg location on the leaf did not significantly affect the likelihood of a reaction, nor did the location of an egg in the plant canopy. However, plant age and species significantly affected the probability of a reaction to eggs: leaves of younger plants were more likely to elicit a response compared to older plants, and overall, plants of the species P. angulata were more likely to elicit a response compared to P. pubescens plants. The physical response of P. pubescens and P. angulata leaves incurred a fitness cost of 11.8% and 13.4%, respectively, for H. subflexa. Thus, the formation of necrotic tissue and/or neoplasms on Physalis plant tissue in contact with eggs of H. subflexa appears to be an effective defense against this herbivore.
FIGURE
Related publications:
Physical Response of Physalis Leaves to Eggs of Heliothis subflexa (Poster)

Herbivore-induced fruit abscission in the Physalis genus
By: Jennifer Petzold

Description:
Plants are equipped with a number of mechanisms for defense against insect herbivores. Plant responses to herbivory can be quite complex and often involve the immediate induction of defense- and wound-response pathways, which can be activated by a number of stimuli. A mechanism employed by members of the Physalis genus to avoid further herbivory by the specialist caterpillar H. subflexa is the abscission of the fruits on which H. subflexa is feeding. The factor that causes fruit abscission is unknown, and abscission rates in Physalis species vary dramatically; some Physalis species are extremely sensitive to herbivory and fruit drop occurs only hours after initiation of herbivory, while other species require severe damage and much longer periods of time for fruit abscission to occur (if it occurs at all). Mechanical damage by insect mouthparts, as well as elicitors in insect saliva or regurgitant, have both been shown to induce defense-response pathways in plants. The goal of this study is to determine the factor(s) in the plant/insect interaction that causes fruit abscission in Physalis species (i.e., mechanical damage by chewing, elicitors in saliva, or both), and to examine the varying levels of sensitivity in fruit abscission of a number of Physalis species. For example, do differences in plant architecture between Physalis species have an effect on sensitivity to caterpillar damage? Are tall, erect species more likely to abscise fruit quickly compared to low-growing, prostrate species? Differences in the sensitivity of various Physalis species to H. subflexa attack will help us to answer these questions, and will allow us to speculate what these differential responses mean in evolutionary terms for plants in this genus.

Related Publications:

Risk of Cross-Resistance to Diverse Bt Toxins

USDA Biotechnology Risk Assessment program

Bt is an environmentally benign insecticide that is being used prophylactically on almost 20 million hectares of farmland (Bates et al. 2005), so there is real potential for field resistance. Such resistance could result in use of less benign, more expensive insecticides.

The EPA has mandated Bt resistance management plans for all commercialized Bt toxin-producing transgenic crops. Implementing these resistance management plans is seen by some farmers and industry representatives as extremely expensive and complex (eg. EPA 2000). In contrast, some environmental protection groups and organic farmers believe that these plans are not restrictive enough. Therefore, EPA is continually being pushed to justify its resistance management plans (EPA 2000, Bates et al. 2005). To date, computer simulation models (eg. Roush 1997), small scale tests of these models (e.g. Zhao et al. 2003), analysis of lab and field selected Bt resistant strains (Frutos et al.1999), preliminary estimates of the frequency of some resistance genes (e.g. Andow and Alstad 1998), and economic analyses (e.g. Hurley et al. 1999) have been used to justify currently mandated plans. Opponents of current and proposed EPA resistance management plans have challenged most of these justifications. Some of these challenges are without scientific merit, but others are useful in pushing researchers to develop more specific and rigorous analyses of resistance evolution.
The 1998 EPA scientific advisory panel (EPA 1998) concluded that "a refuge/high dose strategy must be employed for target pests within the current understanding of the technology". High Dose is currently defined as more than 25 times the concentration of toxin needed to kill susceptible insects. The utility of the refuge/high dose approach is in its potential to dramatically decrease the rate at which resistance alleles increase in frequency, if single, rare resistance alleles in heterozygous form confer less than approximately 25 fold resistance (Gould 1998). Critics who feel that this approach isn't stringent enough argue that there are likely to be genes in pest populations that confer more than 25 fold resistance. They point to a survey of F1 crosses (EPA 2000) which found that there was more than 25 fold resistance in 20% of the crosses. These results are tentative for in most of the tests we do not know if single genes are involved in resistance traits examined. Those who think that the high dose has been set too high argue that genes analyzed to date are mostly from laboratory-selected insects, and we know too little about field resistance to impose such strict regulations (but see Background Section). While a QTL analysis of genes underlying the resistance traits in target pests will not end all controversies about the EPA regulations, they would provide much more rigorous information about the genetic parameters that must be used to initiate the simulation models relied upon by the EPA.

The recent commercialization of cultivars with two distinct Bt toxins has added a new layer of complexity to debates about high doses and refuges (Bates et al. 2005). If a crop produces high doses of two toxins, even a partially dominant gene that confers resistance to only one of the toxins is unlikely to rapidly increase in frequency because insects with such genes are expected to be killed by the second toxin. When a pest species is selected under these conditions even a very small refuge is expected to dramatically slow the evolution of field-level resistance unless a gene exists that can confer a high level of cross-resistance to both toxins (Gould 1998). Some have informally argued that once Dual toxin cultivars are available, single toxin cultivars should be withdrawn from the market. The utility of such an action will be better understood if we had some information on the probability that strains would evolve that had cross-resistance to multiple toxins. If single alleles exist that confer broad-based resistance that includes Cry1Ac and either or both Cry1F and Cry2A, this probability is higher. The proposed research is focused on assessing the probability of such strains evolving. If our research demonstrates a hazard and its probability, it will help policy makers determine actions needed (or not) to avoid the risk of strains with broad-based Bt resistance.

Resistance Management for Transgenic Crops

Overview:
Empirical and theoretical analysis of the risk of insect pest adaptation to transgenic crops that produce Bt toxins (e.g. Cry1A, Cry1B, Cry2A, VIP) was a major focus of our lab from 1985 through about 2005. We feel that the work in our lab during that period contributed substantially to science-based approaches for decreasing that risk.

We currently have one active project in our lab on Bt resistance that is concentrated on determining if there are genes that code for broad-based resistance to diverse Bt toxins. Beyond that project and our maintenance of 3 Bt toxin-resistant strains of Heliothis virescens, all of our work is now through collaborations with other labs.

We envision our lab moving from work on resistance management for transgenic crops to research on resistance risks associated with genetically engineered insect pests.

Below are pdfs of some of the research papers produced by our lab and collaborators on resistance management for Bt crops.

Related Publications:
Gould, F., N. Blair, M. Reid, T.L. Rennie, J. Lopez, and S. Micinski. (2002). Bacillus thuringiensis-toxin resistance management: Stable isotope analysis of alternative host use by Helicoverpa zea. PNAS 99(26):16581-16586. (PDF)

Gould, F., A. Anderson, A. Jones, D. Sumerford, D.G. Heckel, J. Lopez, S. Micinski, R. Leonard, and M. Laster (1997). Initial frequency of alleles for resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxins in field populations of Heliothis virescens. PNAS 94: 3519-3523. (PDF)

THE EVOLUTIONARY POTENTIAL OF CROP PESTS
PDF

GENETIC PEST MANAGEMENT
Population genetics of transgenes in insect vectors----NIH (with Alun Lloyd, Tom Scott, and David O’Brochta)
PI--Gould, Fred L.

Recent advances in our ability to genetically engineer insect strains with decreased capacity to reproduce or to transmit disease-causing pathogens raises the question of how transgenes coding for these traits can be incorporated into native populations of insect vector species. Because insects with these traits are not expected to replace native populations through the direct action of natural selection there is a need to develop genetic drive mechanisms that will force the transgenes into populations. A number of potential strategies for using specific drive mechanisms such as transposons and multiple stable insertions of genes have been discussed, and preliminary population genetic models have been developed to examine the feasibility of certain strategies. We propose to develop a comprehensive modeling framework that can be used by both theoretical and empirical researchers in determining autocidal and strain replacement approaches that are most likely to successfully suppress specific insect-borne diseases in specific regions. We will design our first model to fit the biology of Aedes aegypti, the principal vector of dengue virus (DV). Initial estimates of most relevant parameters are available from previous and ongoing research. Other parameters will be estimated as a component of this proposal. Results of our modeling work will predict, based on current biological data, which of at least six DV suppression strategies are expected to succeed under specific conditions, and their relative field-implementation costs. Our results will also indicate for which biological parameters we need more precise and accurate estimates in order to better predict Ae. aegypti and DV dynamics. Complete validation of the integrated Ae. aegypti/DV model will only be possible after a large number of transgenic mosquito releases in varied environments. However, we will use field/laboratory data and experiments to validate ecological and genetic components of the model as they are developed. We will hold interdisciplinary workshops to ensure that the final model framework is sufficiently flexible and accessible to be of use to researchers working on other insect-borne diseases such as malaria, and working with other genes and genetic drive mechanisms.

SPECIFIC AIMS
Our overall aim is to bring together insights from population genetic models, molecular biology, mosquito biology, and disease epidemiology to assess and help develop methods for driving useful transgenes into target insect populations. Researchers in these four fields often work independently, and sometimes do not understand each other's research perspectives. Our past experience indicates that a quantitative modeling framework could serve as a hub for bringing together the knowledge from each of these fields, and could yield more feasible, and more novel approaches for fighting debilitating, insect-transmitted diseases.

Our specific aims are to:
1) Develop spatially explicit, stochastic models of Ae. aegypti population dynamics and genetics for examining autocidal control and strain replacement strategies.

2) Estimate essential model parameters by measuring fitness of outcrossed, native strains of Ae. aegypti with transgene insertions, and by determining the pattern of intra-genomic spread of loaded piggyBac transposons in Ae. aegypti.

3) Couple the model developed in Aim 1 with epidemiological models to test hypotheses regarding the comparative efficiency and risk of different transgenic strategies for control of dengue virus.

Transgenic Insects for Autocidal Control
Paul Schliekelman and Fred Gould

Related Publications:
Sinkins, Steven P. and Fred Gould (2006). Gene drive systems for insect disease vectors. Nature Reviews Genetics 7(6): 427-435. (PDF)

Schliekelman, Paul, Stephen Ellner, and Fred Gould (2005). Pest Control by Genetic Manipulation of Sex Ratio. Journal of Economic Entomology 98(1): 18-34. (PDF)

Gould, Fred and Paul Schliekelman (2004). Populations Genetics of Autocidal Control and Strain Replacement. Annual Review of Entomology 49: 193-217. (PDF)

TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENT POST-INTEGRATION BEHAVIOR AND THE DYNAMICS OF GENE DRIVE IN MOSQUITO POPULATIONS
Jason L. Rasgon and Fred L. Gould

Description:
Some vector-borne disease control strategies using transgenic mosquitoes require transgene spread to high frequency in populations. Transposable elements (TE's) are DNA sequences that replicate and transpose within the genomes of other organisms and may therefore be represented in the next generation in higher frequencies than predicted by Mendelian segregation. This over-representation has allowed some TE's to spread through natural populations. Transgenes incorporated within a TE sequence are expected to be driven into populations as long as there is a positive balance between fitness costs and over-representation. Models have been used to examine parameters that affect this balance but did not take into account TE post-integration behavior or density-dependent copy number regulation. A simulation model was created to examine the impact of these factors on TE spread in mosquito populations. TE's that induce no fitness costs are predicted to increase in frequency over a wide range of parameter values but spread is slower for lower levels of transposition, recombination and inter/intra-chromosomal movement. If TE's are costly, high rates of intrachromosomal movement can slow or halt spread. TE's with robust transgene drive characteristics will replicate and transpose =10%/insert/generation, induce =1% fitness cost/insert, and move preferentially to unlinked sites in the genome.

Related Publications:
Rasgon, Jason L. and Fred L. Gould. (2005) Transposable Element Insertion Location Bias and the Dynamics of Gene Drive in Mosquito Population. Insect Molecular Biology 14(5): 493-500. (PDF)

Engineered Underdominance
Krisztian Magori, Fred Gould, Yunxin Huang, Alun Lloyd

Description:
We investigate the theoretical potential for introgressing a desired engineered gene into a pest population by linking the desired gene to DNA constructs that exhibit underdominance properties. Our deterministic model includes two independently segregating engineered constructs which both carry a lethal gene, but suppress each other. Only genotypes containing both or neither construct are viable. Both constructs also carry the desired gene with an independent regulatory mechanism. We examine the minimal number of individuals of an engineered strain that must be released into a natural population to successfully introgress the desired gene. We compare results for strains carrying single and multiple insertions of the constructs. When there are no fitness costs associated with the inserted constructs (when the lethal sequences are not expressed), the number of individuals that must be released decreases as the number of insertions in the genome of the released strain increases. As fitness costs increase, the number of individuals that must be released increases at a greater rate for release strains with more insertions. Under specific conditions this results in the strain with only a single insertion of each construct being the most efficient for introgressing the desired gene. We discuss practical implications of our findings.

Related Publications:
Magori, Krisztian, and Fred Gould (2006). Genetically engineered underdominance for manipulation of pest populations: a deterministic model. Genetics 172(4): 2613-2620. (PDF)

Introducing Transgenes into Insect Population Using Sex Ratio Meiotic Drive

Yunxin Huang, Fred Gould

Project Description:
Sex ratio meiotic drive refers to the unequal transmission of X- and Y-bearing gametes from individuals of the heterogametic sex, thus resulting biased sex ratio in favor of either males or females. Empirical studies have suggested that strong male-biased meiotic drive exists in Aedes aegypti, the primary vector of Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever. The meiotic drive system in Aedes aegypti might be used to introduce desirable transgenes that do not transmit diseases into the insect population. To evaluate the feasibility of the strategy, we are currently developing mathematical framework and a computer programs that simulate the dynamics of transgenes for different scenarios of natural populations. Preliminary results have been obtained and a paper is in preparation.
Gates Foundation project for developing and testing gene-drive and anti-pathogen genes.

Project Summary:
This project advances the development of genetics-based, effective, and safe field practices for preventing Aedes aegypti from transmitting dengue viruses (DVs) by reducing mosquito population densities or eliminating their ability to transmit the viruses. We expect these practices to result in decreased morbidity and mortality caused by DVs. The specific goal of this project is to test one or more genetic control strategies in large cages in field conditions. This project does not propose the release into the field of any genetically-modified mosquitoes. Project Objectives include efforts to 1) optimize effector genes for population replacement and reduction; 2) develop safe and efficient drive systems for introgressing effector genes into mosquito populations; and 3) evaluate genetic control systems at an established field site. A fourth Project Objective addresses Project Administration that provides overall management and organization. Embedded in the Project Objectives are a number of Project Initiatives that provide support capabilities to facilitate the successful completion of the Objectives. Project Objectives have clearly defined Decision Points and Milestones and are met through an integrated network consisting of a Scientific Advisory Board (SAB), Collaborating Researchers (CR) (some of whom serve as Project Coordinators) and Network Researchers (NR), that emphasizes collaboration, interactions with other disease-control initiatives, and participation of dengue-endemic country (DEC) partners.

Project Objectives 1-3 provide for the investigation of five genetic methods for controlling DV transmission. Two, densoviruses and release of insects carrying dominant lethal mutations (RIDL), are designed to reduce or eliminate mosquito populations. The remaining three, engineered transposable elements (TEs), meiotic drive and underdominance (UD), are designed to modify vector populations (termed “population replacement”) by introgressing genes that eliminate competent vectors, although they also can cause population reduction under certain circumstances. These methods require specific effector molecules and represent a broad spectrum of genetic mechanisms that are at various stages in their development and readiness for field-testing. We will investigate, evaluate and, if appropriate, develop these methods to the point where they are tested in large outdoor cage trials in a DEC field site. Mathematical modeling will be used in conjunction with laboratory and field work to identify and quantify parameters that affect genetic control methods, predict the likely effects of the alternative control strategies on DV transmission and disease burden, and estimate the likely cost-effectiveness of these strategies relative to existing control measures. A field site will be identified and developed contingent on national, regional and local community willingness to consider genetic control as a potential part of an integrated pilot dengue control program. Collaborative studies at the field sites will involve local scientists, community leaders and public health personnel. Activities will focus on identifying parameters essential to the successful deployment of genetics-based methods and the ethical, legal and social issues (ELSI) that must accompany these methods.

Project Administration, in addition to managing the operational aspects of coordinating this large enterprise, also is responsible for communicating project activities. The intent is to have as many as of the activities as possible be available for public review. This open policy promotes understanding of the objectives, reduces concerns about the project activities and allows a productive public dialogue on issues specific to the project and to genetic control approaches in general.

Project Initiatives promote cooperation, accessibility, standardization, quality control and timeliness in achieving the Project Objectives. These include 1) a dengue infection assay that allows challenges of non-transgenic and transgenic mosquitoes with DVs to assess their transmission potential, 2) a cage trial initiative that makes available population-level evaluations of laboratory- and field-derived mosquitoes, 3) a transgenesis initiative for production of specific transgenic mosquitoes, 4) a collaborative website initiative to establish a central web portal that features up-to-date communications, files, images, models and data related to the project, and that serves as a clearinghouse for information made available to the general public, and 5) a genomics/bioinformatics initiative that makes available the resources produced by the Ae. aegypti genome project to facilitate genetic manipulation of the mosquitoes.

Project milestones are numerous, reflecting the network structure of this project, and are detailed in the Project Plan Annotations. Within the five-year period of this award, we expect to develop control methods that target larval and adult mosquitoes. We will have functional effector genes for both reducing mosquito populations and altering their abilities to transmit DVs. We also expect to have tested and compared the efficacy and specificity of gene drive mechanisms and modeled their potential role in overall integrated strategies of DV control. Finally, we expect to have a field site appropriate for testing genetics-based methods that has the approval of the local community and relevant government bodies.

Research will be conducted at universities (Colorado State University, Cornell University, North Carolina State University, University of California Davis, University of California Irvine, University of Notre Dame, and Texas A&M), research institutes (Eubios Ethics Institute and the Oswaldo Cruz), a private company (Oxitec), and a field site selected during the project period.

Spatial modeling of Aedes aegypti population dynamics and genetics
Krisztian Magori, Fred Gould, Tom Scott, Alun Lloyd, Dana Focks,

Description:
Aedes aegypti is a tropical and subtropical mosquito transmitting both yellow fever and dengue. As there's no vaccine for dengue available, the only option to combat dengue is to eliminate its arthropod vector. However, traditional control programs of Ae. aegypti are seldom effective and mainly concentrate on areas that are heavily infected during dengue epidemics. Our group explores the potential of autocidal (genetic) control approaches against this pest species. Our first goal is to build a realistic spatial model of the population dynamics and population genetics of Ae. aegypti. Although several previous models exist in the literature, some are too abstract and not realistic enough, while others are too specific and unsuitable to model population genetics. Our ecological model later will be used to explore the epidemiological consequences of different control methods on the Ae. aegypti population.

Broadening the Application of Evolutionarily-Based
Genetic Pest Management

Abstract:
Insect- and tick-vectored diseases such as malaria, dengue fever, and Lyme disease cause human suffering, and current approaches for prevention are not adequate. Invasive plants and animals such as Scotch broom, zebra mussels, and gypsy moths continue to cause environmental damage and economic losses in agriculture and forestry. Rodents transmit diseases and cause major pre- and post-harvest losses, especially in less affluent countries. Each of these problems might benefit from the developing field of Genetic Pest Management that is conceptually based on principles of evolutionary biology. This article briefly describes the history of this field, new molecular tools in this field, and potential applications of those tools. There will be a need for evolutionary biologists to interact with researchers and practitioners in a variety of other fields to determine the most appropriate targets for genetic pest management, the most appropriate methods for specific targets, and the potential of natural selection to diminish the effectiveness of genetic pest management. In addition to producing environmentally sustainable pest management solutions, research efforts in this area could lead to new insights about the evolution of selfish genetic elements in natural systems and will provide students with the opportunity to develop a more sophisticated understanding of the role of evolutionary biology in solving societal problems.

FRED’S TEACHING
Insect Ecology (ENT 731), Click here for syllabus

Instructor: Fred Gould
Preq: ENT 425 and BO (ZO) 760 or equivalent
Course Overview:
This course introduces students to many basic concepts of theoretical ecology, such as logistic growth models and predator-prey models, in addition to covering topics specific to insect populations such as thermal ecology and the ecology of being small. Students will get out of the course a greater understanding of how insects fit into their ecosystems, what mathematical techniques are useful for studying populations, and how to create basic computer models, culminating in a final modeling project.

Genes in Conflict, Click here for syllabus

Instructors: Fred Gould Owen McMillan
Course overview
Are you bored by the simplistic rules of Mendelian inheritance?
If so, please join us in discussion of the scoundrels of the evolutionary world- DNA that doesn't play by the usual rules of inheritance. These
autosomal killers, gamete eliminators, and jumping genes distort their
transmission, spreading rapidly and often without any benefit to the host organism. Some are suppressed (or burn out) quickly, but others leave a substantial imprint on a genomic architecture of an organism -almost half of human DNA bears the imprint of these selfish genes. We have known about these "selfish" elements for over a hundred years; yet, only recently have we appreciated their diversity, their evolutionary dynamics, their importance as sources of novel variation, and their potential for genetic engineering.
We will be reading and discussing the book “Genes in Conflict” by Austin Burt and Robert Trivers

Techniques in molecular ecology and evolution,
Click here for syllabus

Instructors: Ed Vargo, Brian Wiegmann, Fred Gould, Christina Grozinger
Course overview
The study of genetic variation from individuals to higher taxonomic levels can provide important insights into many biological processes, such as reproductive success, breeding systems, migration, population size and natural selection, as well as historical events like speciation and genetic bottlenecks. There is a wide array of molecular genetic markers which provide powerful tools for quantifying genetic variation and for making inferences about population and evolutionary processes. This is a laboratory-intensive course providing hands-on experience in the application of several commonly used techniques in molecular ecology and evolution. Lectures will cover the theory and application of specific techniques in the context of case studies from the primary literature. By the end of the course, students should be comfortable with both the theory and application of molecular markers to the study of ecology and evolution, and should be able to incorporate one or more techniques into their thesis research.

Genetic Pest Management, Click here for syllabus

Instructor: Fred Gould
Course overview
Genetic Pest Management or GPM is an approach for manipulating genomes of pest populations to decrease their density or render them harmless. The classical concepts behind GPM were developed over 40 years ago, but until now application of GPM has been limited. Advances in molecular genetics have made possible more precise manipulation of pest species’ genomes, promising more efficient and sophisticated application of GPM to a much broader array of pest species. In this class we will review literature on both the classical and newer molecular approaches to GPM. The goal of the class is to give students (and other participants in the class) a broad understanding of both the scientific and social issues related to past and future programs in GPM.

STUDENT TEACHING
COMING SOON

OUTREACH
Jen is involved with the Sierra Club Inner City Outing volunteer group (Raleigh chapter). The goal of this program is to get urban youth to participate in outdoor, environmentally diverse activities, and to foster an appreciation for the natural world. Recent trips include stawberry picking at Hilltop farms followed by paddle boating at Lake Wheeler, Bugfest, horseback riding at Dead Broke Farms, and camping at the beach. Nicole Benda, a former member of the lab, was also very involved with this program.

JOIN US
CURRENT POSITIONS
Posdoctoral Fellowship
Vector/disease genetic models: We need a mathematically oriented biologist (or biologically oriented mathematician) with experience in population genetics and/or epidemiology to work on an NIH- and Gates Foundation-funded project.

The project is aimed at building stochastic, spatially explicit, simulation models that link insect population dynamics, disease epidemiology, and population genetics in a way that can contribute to improving strategies for releasing transgenic mosquitoes to reduce the incidence of human disease. The fellowship is for 2 years but could be extended for a third year pending additional funding. In addition to working on model development and analysis, the person in this position will collaborate in an interdisciplinary group composed of mosquito ecologists, disease epidemiologists, molecular biologists, biomathematicians, ethicists, and scientists from disease-endemic countries, in efforts to develop novel transgenic strategies for disease reduction. The person in this position will work the PIs (Fred Gould & Alun Lloyd) and another postdoc in organizing a workshop to teach other researchers how to use the models.

There will be an opportunity for some empirical research (if desired), and for interactions with other members of the lab who are working on other ecological and evolutionary research. NCSU has just begun development of an interdisciplinary graduate program in Genetic Pest Management, so there are likely to be teaching opportunities.

An overview of the area of research and an entry point to relevant literature can be found in:
Gould, F. K. Magori, and Y. Huang. 2006. Genetic strategies for controlling mosquito-borne diseases. Am. Sci. 94:238-246. (PDF)
Sinkins, S. P., and F. Gould. 2006. Gene-drive systems for insect disease
vectors. Nat. Rev. 7:427-435. (PDF)

North Carolina State University is a leading research institution with a strong commitment to the study of quantitative and population genetics. The University is situated in Raleigh, NC and is within 30 miles of Duke University, UNC-Chapel Hill, NIEHS, an EPA research unit, and the Research Triangle Park. NC State University is an equal opportunity and affirmative action employer.

To apply: Send to Fred_Gould@NCSU.edu 1) A one or two page letter of intent. 2) CV,

and 3) Names of 3-4 references. Closing date for applications is July 15, 2008, or until a suitable candidate is found. For further information call Fred Gould at 919-515-1647 or email to above email address.

UNDERGRAD OPPORTUNITIES
Undergraduate part time lab assistants:
We are often looking for undergraduates to help with the biological and molecular aspects of our research. We like to start stuents in our lab when they are in their first and second years at NCSU, but more advanced students should also apply.

Please contact Rebekah or Marie for more information

GRADUATE STUDENT OPPORTUNITIES
We are always looking for excellent graduate students.
Please contact Fred Gould

LOCATION
Mailing Address:
840 Method Road
Unit I
Department of Entomology, NCSU
Raleigh NC 27607
(fax : (919) 515-2824)

MAP PIC

Driving Directions:
Directions to 840 Method Road Unit #1 from I-40

Coming east on I 40 from the RDU airport.
Keep in the 2 right lanes and take the fork to Wade Ave. Take the exit for Blue Ridge Rd, and at the top of the exit turn right. Blue Ridge Rd. will dead end on Western Blvd. Turn left on Western Blvd.
Get in left lane and make a left hand turn at the first traffic light onto Method Road (there is a Subway sandwich shop on the corner). Go about a block and a half. Make a left turn into the driveway with a red sign That says : 840 Method road -Greenhouse.
840 Method Road Unit #1 is the first red brick building you come to as you go down the hill.

LINKS

NCSU Department of Entomology

W.M. Keck Center for Behavioral Biology

Entomological Society of America

Genetic Pest Management at NCSU

PUBLICATIONS (click on the below citations for pdf)

Abney, M. R., Sorenson C.E., Gould F. & Bradley J.R. 2008. Limitations of stable carbon isotope analysis for determining natal host origins of tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens. Entomologia Experimentalis Et Applicata 126(1):46-52.
Alinia, F., Cohen M.B. & Gould F. 2000. Heritability of tolerance to the Cry1Ab toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis in Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 93(1):14-17.
Bentur, J. S., Andow D.A., Cohen M.B., Romena A.M. & Gould F. 2000. Frequency of alleles conferring resistance to a Bacillus thuringiensis toxin in a Philippine population of Scirpophaga incertulas (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 93(5):1515-1521.
Bentur, J. S., Cohen M.B. & Gould F. 2000. Variation in performance on cry1Ab-transformed and nontransgenic rice varieties among populations of Scirpophaga incertulas (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) from Luzon Island, Philippines. Journal of Economic Entomology 93(6):1773-1778.
Burd, A. D., Gould F., Bradley J.R., Van Duyn J.W. & Moar W.J. 2003. Estimated frequency of nonrecessive Bt resistance genes in bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in eastern North Carolina. Journal of Economic Entomology 96(1):137-142.
Clabby, C 2006, Scientists building a better mosquito, The News & Observer,12 December 2006, .
Fournel, S., Huc X., Aguerre-Girr M., Solier C., Legros M., Praud-Brethenou C., Moussa M., Chaouat G., Berrebi A., Bensussan A., Lenfant F. & L Bouteiller P. 2000. Comparative reactivity of different HLA-G monoclonal antibodies to soluble HLA-G molecules. Tissue Antigens 55(6):510-518.
Gahan, L. J., Gould F., López J.D., Micinski S. & Heckel D.G. 2007. A polymerase chain reaction screen of field populations of Heliothis virescens for a retrotransposon insertion conferring resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxin. Journal of Economic Entomology 100(1):187-194.
Gahan, L. J., Ma Y.T., Coble M.L., Gould F., Moar W.J. & Heckel D.G. 2005. Genetic basis of resistance to Cry1Ac and Cry2Aa in Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 98(4):1357-1368.
Gould, F. & Schliekelman P. 2004. Population genetics of autocidal control and strain replacement. Annual Review of Entomology 49:193-217.
Gould, F. 1991. The evolutionary potential of crop pests. American Scientist 79.
Gould, F. 1998. Sustainability of transgenic insecticidal cultivars: integrating pest genetics and ecology. Annual Review of Entomology 43:701-726.
Gould, F. 2006. The dark side of DNA. American Scientist 94(6):552-554.
Gould, F. 2008. Broadening the application of evolutionarily based genetic pest management. Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution 62(2):500-510.
Gould, F., Anderson A., Jones A., Sumerford D., Heckel D.G., Lopez J., Micinski S., Leonard R. & Laster M. 1997. Initial frequency of alleles for resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxins in field populations of Heliothis virescens. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 94:3519-3523.
Gould, F., Blair N., Reid M., Rennie T.L., Lopez J. & Micinski S. 2002. Bacillus thuringiensis-toxin resistance management: stable isotope assessment of alternate host use by Helicoverpa zea. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 99(26):16581-16586.
Gould, F., Cohen M.B., Bentur J.S., Kennedy G.G. & Van Duyn J. 2006. Impact of small fitness costs on pest adaptation to crop varieties with multiple toxins: a heuristic model. Journal of Economic Entomology 99(6):2091-2099.
Gould, F., Magori K. & Huang Y. 2006. Genetic strategies for controlling mosquito-borne diseases. American Scientist 94(3):238-246.
Groot, A. T., Fan Y., Brownie C., Jurenka R.A., Gould F. & Schal C. 2005. Effect of PBAN on pheromone production by mated Heliothis virescens AND Heliothis subflexa females. Journal of Chemical Ecology 31(1):15-28.

Groot, A. T., Horovitz J.L., Hamilton J., Santangelo R.G., Schal C. & Gould F. 2006. Experimental evidence for interspecific directional selection on moth pheromone communication. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103(15):5858-5863.
Groot, A. T., Santangelo R.G., Ricci E., Brownie C., Gould F. & Schal C. 2007. Differential attraction of Heliothis subflexa males to synthetic pheromone lures in Eastern US and Western Mexico. Journal of Chemical Ecology 33(2):353-368.
Groot, A. T., Ward C., Wang J., Pokrzywa A., O'Brien J., Bennett J., Kelly J., Santangelo R.G., Schal C. & Gould F. 2004. Introgressing pheromone QTL between species: towards an evolutionary understanding of differentiation in sexual communication. Journal of Chemical Ecology 30(12):2495-2514.
Groot, A., Gemeno C., Brownie C., Gould F. & Schal C. 2005. Male and female antennal responses in Heliothis virescens and H. subflexa to conspecific and heterospecific sex pheromone compounds. Chemical Ecology 34(2):256-263.
Heckel, D. G., Gahan L.J., Baxter S.W., Zhao J.Z., Shelton A.M., Gould F. & Tabashnik B.E. 2007. The diversity of Bt resistance genes in species of Lepidoptera. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 95(3):192-197.
Huang, Y., Magori K., Lloyd A.L. & Gould F. 2007. Introducing desirable transgenes into insect populations using Y-linked meiotic drive - a theoretical assessment. Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution 61(4):717-726.
Huang, Y., Magori K., Lloyd A.L. & Gould F. 2007. Introducing transgenes into insect populations using combined gene-drive strategies: modeling and analysis. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 37(10):1054-1063.
Jackson, R. E., Bradley J.R., Van Duyn J.W. & Gould F. 2004. Comparative production of Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from transgenic cotton expressing either one or two Bacillus thuringiensis proteins with and without insecticide oversprays. Journal of Economic Entomology 97(5):1719-1725.
Jackson, R. E., Gould F., Bradley J.R. & Van Duyn J.W. 2006. Genetic variation for resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxins in Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in eastern North Carolina. Journal of Economic Entomology 99(5):1790-1797.
Jackson, R. E., Marcus M.A., Gould F., Bradley J.R. & Van Duyn J.W. 2007. Cross-resistance responses of Cry1Ac-selected Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to the Bacillus thuringiensis protein Vip3A. Journal of Economic Entomology 100(1):180-186.
Jurat-Fuentes, J. L., Gahan L.J., Gould F.L., Heckel D.G. & Adang M.J. 2004. The HevCaLP protein mediates binding specificity of the Cry1A class of Bacillus thuringiensis toxins in Heliothis virescens. Biochemistry 43(44):14299-14305.
Jurat-Fuentes, J. L., Gould F.L. & Adang M.J. 2002. Altered glycosylation of 63-and 68-kilodalton microvillar proteins in Heliothis virescens correlates with reduced Cry1 toxin binding, decreased pore formation, and increased resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1 toxins. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 68(11):5711.
Jurat-Fuentes, J. L., Gould F.L. & Adang M.J. 2003. Dual resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac and Cry2Aa toxins in Heliothis virescens suggests multiple mechanisms of resistance. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 69(10):5898.
Lee, M. K., You T.H., Gould F.L. & Dean D.H. 1999. Identification of residues in Domain III of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac Toxin that affect binding and toxicity. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 65(10):4513-4520.
Li, G. P., Wu K.M., Gould F., Wang J.K., Miao J., Gao X.W. & Guo Y.Y. 2007. Increasing tolerance to Cry1Ac cotton from cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, was confirmed in Bt cotton farming area of China. ECOLOGICAL ENTOMOLOGY 32(4):366-375.
Li, G., Wu K., Gould F., Feng H., He Y. & Guo Y. 2004. Frequency of Bt resistance genes in Helicoverpa armigera populations from the Yellow River cotton-farming region of China. Entomologia Experimentalis Et Applicata 112(2):135-143.
Magori, K. & Gould F. 2006. Genetically engineered underdominance for manipulation of pest populations: a deterministic model. Genetics 172(4):2613-2620.
Mallampalli, N., Gould F. & Barbosa P. 2005. Predation of Colorado potato beetle eggs by a polyphagous ladybeetle in the presence of alternate prey: potential impact on resistance evolution. Entomologia Experimentalis Et Applicata 114(1):47-54.
Oppenheim, S. J. & Gould F. 2002. Behavioral adaptations increase the value of enemy-free space for Heliothis subflexa, a specialist herbivore. Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution 56(4):679-689.
Oppenheim, S. J. & Gould F. 2002. Is attraction fatal? The effects of herbivore-induced plant volatiles on herbivore parasitism. Ecology 83(12):3416-3425.
Puente, M. E., Kennedy G.G. & Gould F. 2008. The impact of herbivore-induced plant volatiles on parasitoid foraging success: a general deterministic model. Journal of Chemical Ecology .
Puente, M., Magori K., Kennedy G.G. & Gould F. 2008. Impact of herbivore-induced plant volatiles on parasitoid foraging success: a spatial simulation of the Cotesia rubecula, Pieris rapae, and Brassica oleracea system. Journal of Chemical Ecology .
Rajamohan, F., Hussain S.R., Cotrill J.A., Gould F. & Dean D.H. 1996. Mutations at domain II, loop 3, of Bacillus thuringiensis CryIAa and CryIAb delta-endotoxins suggest loop 3 is involved in initial binding to lepidopteran midguts. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 271(41):25220-25226.
Rasgon, J. L. & Gould F. 2005. Transposable element insertion location bias and the dynamics of gene drive in mosquito populations. Insect Molecular Biology 14(5):493-500.
Schliekelman, P. & Gould F. 2000. Pest control by the introduction of a conditional lethal trait on multiple loci: potential, limitations, and optimal strategies. Journal of Economic Entomology 93(6):1543-1565.
Schliekelman, P. & Gould F. 2000. Pest control by the release of insects carrying a female-killing allele on multiple loci. Journal of Economic Entomology 93(6):1566-1579.
Schliekelman, P., Ellner S. & Gould F. 2005. Pest control by genetic manipulation of sex ratio. Journal of Economic Entomology 98(1):18-34.
Sheck, A. L. & Gould F. 1996. The genetic basis of differences in growth and behavior of specialist and generalist herbivore species: selection on hybrids of Heliothis virescens and Heliothis subflexa (Lepidoptera). Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution 50(2).
Sheck, A. L., Groot A.T., Ward C.M., Gemeno C., Wang J., Brownie C., Schal C. & Gould F. 2006. Genetics of sex pheromone blend differences between Heliothis virescens and Heliothis subflexa: a chromosome mapping approach. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 19(2):600-617.
Sinkins, S. P. & Gould F. 2006. Gene drive systems for insect disease vectors. Nature Reviews. Genetics 7(6):427-435.
Sisterson, M. S. & Gould F.L. 1999. The inflated calyx of Physalis angulata: a refuge from parasitism for Heliothis subflexa. Ecology 80(3):1071-1075.
Storer, N. P., Peck S.L., Gould F., Van Duyn J.W. & Kennedy G.G. 2003. Sensitivity analysis of a spatially-explicit stochastic simulation model of the evolution of resistance in Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to Bt transgenic corn and cotton. Journal of Economic Entomology 96(1):173-187.
Storer, N. P., Peck S.L., Gould F., Van Duyn J.W. & Kennedy G.G. 2003. Spatial processes in the evolution of resistance in Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to Bt transgenic corn and cotton in a mixed agroecosystem: a biology-rich stochastic simulation model. Journal of Economic Entomology 96(1):156-172.
Tabashnik, B. E., Gould F. & Carrière Y. 2004. Delaying evolution of insect resistance to transgenic crops by decreasing dominance and heritability. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 17(4):904-12; discussion 913-8.
Vásquez, G. M., Orr D.B. & Baker J.R. 2006. Efficacy assessment of Aphidius colemani (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) for suppression of Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae) in greenhouse-grown chrysanthemum. Journal of Economic Entomology 99(4):1104-1111.
Vásquez, G. M. & Silverman J. 2008. Intraspecific aggression and colony fusion in the Argentine ant. Animal Behavior 75(2):583-593.
Vásquez, G. M. & Silverman J. 2008. Queen acceptance and the complexity of nestmate discrimination in the Argentine ant. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 62(4):537-548.
Vásquez, G. M., Schal C. & Silverman J. 2008. Cuticular hydrocarbons as queen adoption cues in the invasive Argentine ant. The Journal of Experimental Biology 211(8):1249-1256.