Three similar historical moments: Above the line = those in power; below the line= those threatening the ones in power



Venice, 1618 Conspiracy





Spanish ambassador, Papal conspiracy against the republic. Spanish infiltration of Venice





England, 1678-9 The Popish Plot


Constitutional monarchial govt. of Charles II/Royalists/Anglicans




Titus Oates & Israel Tongue allege a Jesuit/Catholic conspiracy to kill Charles II. French infiltration of England


*murder of Sir Edmund Berry Godfrey






England, 1681-2 The Exclusion Crisis


Constitutional monarchial govt. of Charles II/Royalists/Tory/Anglicans




Whig members of Parliament against James II becoming King, and for The Duke of Monmouth becoming king. Led by Anthony Cooper, Earl of Shaftesbury, Anglican