Reynard the Fox from word, to manuscript, to book

The words

Reynard (French); Reinaert (Dutch) Reginhard (German) all means:   hardened, absolutely hard

Isengrin (German) means; “iron helm” suggesting knight, soldier, warrior

Earliest Manuscripts:

Reinardus Vulpes (1148), a Latin manuscript by a Flemish priest in Ghent (now Belgium)

Van den vos Reynarde (12--) a middle Dutch(sometimes called Low German) manuscript

Leeu Reinaertes histoire (c. 1375) a middle French manuscript

First book version, printed on a press with set type

History of Reynard the Fox (1481), translated from the Dutch Van den vos Reynarde into Middle English by William Caxton, an Englisman who lived in Bruges, a busy trading port (now in Brussels) and then London; Caxton also printed a version of Aesop’s Fables. Both Caxton and Gutenberg were the most successful first printers.

From 1481 to 1700 Reynard was reprinted in 23 different editions, making it what we’d call a best seller

Most recent English edition:

Reynard the Fox: A New Translation. James Simpson, translator. Introduction by Stephen Greenblatt. W.

W. Norton, 2015.