The Wiegmann Lab

Dipteran Molecular Systematics at North Carolina State University







 Wiegmann Lab Publications





**NEW** Current Opinion in Insect Science (2016) Volume 18: 35-92 Special section on Insect phylogeny, edited by Gregory W Courtney and Brian M Wiegmann

Young, A.D., J. H. Skevington, X. Mengual, G. Ståhls, M. Reemer, K. Jordaens, S. Kelso, A. R. Lemmon, E. M. Lemmon, and B. M. Wiegmann. (2016). The first anchored enrichment dataset produced for Diptera reveals insights into the phylogeny of flower flies (Diptera, Syrphidae) and sets the stage for future largescale analyses. BMC Evolutionary Biology , 16:143.


Schreeg, M. E., H. S. Marr, J. Tarigo, L. A. Cohn, D. M. Bird, E. H. Scholl, M. G. Levy, B. M. Wiegmann, and A. J. Birkeneuer. (2016). Mitochondrial genome sequences and structures aid in the resolution of Piroplasmida phylogeny Plos One 11(11): e0165702. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0165702.


Kjer, K., M. Borowiec, P. Frandsen, J. Ware & B. M. Wiegmann. (2016) Advances using molecular data in insect systematics. Current Opinion in Insect Science, 18:40–47.



Kjer, K. et al. (2015) Response to Comment on “Phylogenomics resolves the timing and pattern of insect evolution” Science 349, 487-c.


Morita. S. I., K. M. Bayless, D. K. Yeates, and B. M. Wiegmann. (2015) Molecular phylogeny of the horse flies: a framework for renewing tabanid taxonomy. Systematic Entomology, DOI: 10.1111/syen.12145


Haseyama, K. L., B. M . Wiegmann, E. A. B. Almeida, and C. J. B. de Carvalho. (2015). Say goodbye to tribes in the new house fly classification: a molecular phylogenetic analysis and an updated biogeographical narrative for the Muscidae (Diptera). Molecular Phylogenetics & Evolution, doi: 10.1016/j.ympev.2015.04.006.


Scheirwater, B., P. W. H. Holland, D. J. Miller, P. Stadler, B. M. Wiegmann, G. Wörheide, G, Wray, and R. DeSalle. (2015). Never ending analysis of a century old evolutionary debate: “unringing” the urmetazoon bell. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution,


Mendonça, M. N., I. S. Winkler, C. Daugeron, C. J. B. de Carvalho, S. P. Turner, and B. M. Wiegmann. (2015). Where do the Neotropical Empidini Lineages (Diptera: Empididae: Empidinae) fit in a worldwide context? Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2015.10.019.


Winterton, S. L., Hardy, N.B., Gaimari, S. D., Hauser, M., Hill, H.N., Holston, K. C., Irwin, M.E., Lambkin, C. L., Metz, M. A., Turco, F., Webb, D., Yang, L. and B. M. Wiegmann. (2015). The phylogeny of stiletto flies (Diptera: Therevidae). Systematic Entomology. DOI: 10.1111/syen.12147.


Nunn, C. L., S C. Alberts, C. R. McClain, S. R. Meshnick, T. J. Vision, B. M. Wiegmann, and A. G. Rodrigo. (2015). Linking ecology, evolution and health:TriCEM. Bioscience doi:10.1093/biosci/biv086.


Yeates, D.K., Meusemann, K., Trautwein, M., Wiegmann, B, and A. Zwick. (2015). Power, resolution and bias: recent advances in insect phylogeny driven by the genomic revolution. Current Opinon in Insect Science, 13:16-23.


Misof, B. et al. (2014) Phylogenomics resolves the timing and pattern of insect evolution. Science 346, 763. DOI: 10.1126/science/1257570

Wiegmann, B. M. and M. D. Trautwein (2014) II.16 Major Events in Arthropod Evolution, In The Princeton Guide to Evolution. Princeton University Press.



Lessard, B, S. L. Cameron, B. M. Wiegmann, and D. K. Yeates (2013) The evolution and biogeography of the austral horse fly tribe Scionini (Diptera: Tabanidae: Pangoniinae) inferred using multiple mitochondrial and nuclear genes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 68: 516-540.

Kirk-Spriggs, A. and B. M. Wiegmann. A revision of Afrotropical Quasimodo flies (Diptera: Schizophora; Curtonotidae). Part IV – the continental Afrotropical species of Curtonotum Macquart, with descriptions of thirteen new species, a combined phylogenetic analysis and revised classification of Curtonotidae.  Zootaxa, 3684 (1): 001–166.

Rodrigo, A., S. Alberts, K. Cranston, J. Kingsolver, H. Lapp, C. McClain, R. Smith, T, Vision, J. Weintraub, and B, Wiegmann (2013). Science Incubators: Synthesis Centers and Their Role in the Research Ecosystem. PLoS Biology 11(1):e1001468. DOI:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001468


Lambkin, C., T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, G. W. Courtney, J. H. Skevington, R. Meier, D. K. Yeates, V. Blagoderov, and B. M. Wiegmann. (2012) The phylogenetic relationships among infraorders and superfamilies of Diptera based on morphological evidence . Systematic Entomology,  38:164–179. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3113.2012.00652.x .

Tóthová, A.  R. Rozkošný, L. Knutson, S. N. Kutty, B. M. Wiegmann and R. Meier (2012) A phylogenetic analysis of Sciomyzidae (Diptera) and some related genera. Cladistics,  DOI: 10.1111/cla.12002.

Trautwein, M. D., B. Wiegmann, R. Beutel, K. Kjer and D. K. Yeates (2012) Advances in Insect Phylogeny at the Dawn of the Postgenomic Era. Annual Review of Entomology, 57: 449-468.

Yeates, D.K. and B.M. Wiegmann (2012) The impact of the Manual of Nearctic Diptera on Phylogenetic Dipterology. Canadian Entomologist, 144:197-205.


Copeland, R.S., Kirk-Spriggs, A.H., Muteti, S., Booth, W. & Wiegmann, B.M. (2011) Rediscovery of the "terrible hairy fly", Mormotomyia hirsuta Austen (Diptera: Mormotomyiidae), in eastern Kenya, with notes on biology, natural history, and genetic variation of the Ukasi Hill population. African Invertebrates 52 (2): 363-390.

Trautwein, M. D., B. M. Wiegmann, and D. K. Yeates. (2011) Overcoming the effects of rogue taxa: Evolutionary relationships of the bee flies. PLOS Currents: Tree of Life 2011, Feb 21.

Wiegmann, B. M., Trautwein, M. D., Winkler, I. S., Barr, N. B., Kim, J. Lambkin, C., Bertone, M.A., Cassel, B. K.,  Bayless, K. M., Heimberg, A. M., Wheeler, B. M., Peterson, K. J., Pape, T. Sinclair, B. J., Skevington, J. S., Blagoderov, V., Caravas, J., Kutty, S. N., Schmidt-Ott, U.,  Kampmeier, G. E., Thompson, F. C., Grimaldi, D. A., Beckenbach, A. T. Courtney, G. W.,  Friedrich M., Meier, R., and D. K. Yeates (2011) Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA. 108(14): 5690-5695.


Beach, J., S. Blum, M. Donoghue, L. Ford, R. Guralnick, M. Mares, B. Thiers, M. Westneat, Q. Wheeler, B. Wiegmann. The Network Integrated Biocollection Alliance (2010) A Strategic Plan for Establishing a Network Integrated Biocollections Alliance.

Kutty, S. J., T. Pape, B. M. Wiegmann, and R. Meier (2010) Molecular phylogeny of the Calyptratae (Diptera: Cyclorrhapha) with an emphasis on the superfamily Oestroidea and the position of Mystacinobiidae and McAlpine's fly Systematic Entomology, 35: 613-645.

Lonsdale, O., S. A. Marshall, J. Fu, and B. Wiegmann (2010) Phylogenetic analysis of the druid flies (Diptera: Clusiidae) based on morphological and molecular data. Insect Systematics & Evolution, 41: 231–274.

Petersen, M. J., M. A. Bertone, B. M. Wiegmann, G. W. Courtney (2010) Phylogenetic synthesis of morphological and molecular data reveals new insights into the higher‐level classification of Tipuloidea (Diptera)
Systematic Entomology 35(3):526 - 545.


Trautwein, M. D., B. M. Wiegmann, and D. K. Yeates (2010). A multigene phylogeny of the fly superfamily Asiloidea (Insecta): Taxon sampling and additional genes reveal the sister group to all higher flies (Cyclorrhapha) Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 56: 918-930.

Winterton, S. L. N. B. Hardy, and B. M. Wiegmann (2010). On wings of lace: phylogeny and Bayesian divergence time estimates of Neuropterida (Insecta) based on morphological and molecular data. Systematic Entomology, 35:349-378. 10.1111/j.1365-3113.2010.00521.x.


Barr, N. B. and B. M. Wiegmann (2009) Phylogenetic relationships of Ceratitis fruit flies inferred from nuclear CAD and tango/ARNT gene fragments: testing monophyly of the subgenera Ceratitis (Ceratitis) and C. (Pterandrus). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 53: 412-424.

Bertone, M. A., and B. M. Wiegmann (2009) Diptera. In: S. Kumar and S. B. Hedges, eds. The Timetree of Life. Oxford University Press.

Lambkin, C. L., Trueman, J. W. H., Yeates, D. K., Holston, K. C., Webb, D. W., Hauser, M., Metz, M. A., Hill, H. N., Skevington, J. H., Yang, L. L., Irwin, M. E., & Wiegmann, B. M. (2009). Supertrees and the Tree of Life: Generating a metaphylogeny for a diverse invertebrate family (Insecta : Diptera : Therevidae) using constraint trees and the parsimony ratchet to overcome low taxon overlap. Invertebrate Systematics, 23(2), 171-191.

Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, J. Kim, B. K. Cassel, M. A. Bertone, S. L. Winterton,  and D. K. Yeates. 2009. Single-copy nuclear genes resolve the phylogeny of the holometabolous insects. BMC Biology 2009, 7:34 doi:10.1186/1741-7007-7-34.

Wiegmann, B. M., J. Kim and M. D. Trautwein. 2009. Holometabola. In: S. Kumar and S. B. Hedges, eds. The Timetree of Life. Oxford University Press.

Winterton, S. L., and B. M. Wiegmann. 2009. Neuroptera. In: S. Kumar and S. B. Hedges, eds. The Timetree of Life. Oxford University Press.


Kutty, S. N., T. Pape, A. Pont, B. M. Wiegmann, and R. Meier. 2008. The Muscoidea (Diptera: Calyptratae) are paraphyletic: Evidence from four mitochondrial and four nuclear genes. Molecular Phylogenetics and
Evolution 49: 639-652.

Bertone M.A., G.W. Courtney and B.M. Wiegmann. 2008. Phylogenetics and a timescale for diversification of the earliest true flies (Insecta: Diptera) based on multiple nuclear genes. Systematic Entomology. 33: 668–687.

Zhang, W. H., (J.) Q.-Y. Xiang, D. T. Thomas, B. M. Wiegmann, M. W. Frohlich and D. E. Soltis. 2008. Molecular evolution of PISTILLATA-like genes in the dogwood genus Cornus (Cornaceae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 47: 175-195. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2007.12.022


Holston, K.C., B. M. Wiegmann and M. E. Irwin. 2007. Monophyly and phylogenetic relationships of Thereva and therevine genus groups (Insecta: Diptera: Therevidae) based on EF-1a, 28S rDNA, and mt16S rDNA sequences. Invertebrate Systematics. 21:279–276.

Scheffer, S. J., I. S. Winkler and B. M. Wiegmann. 2007. Phylogenetic relationships within the leaf-mining flies (Diptera: Agromyzidae) inferred from sequence data from multiple genes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 42: 756-775.

Moulton, J. K., and B. M. Wiegmann. 2007. The phylogenetic relationships of flies in the superfamily Empidoidea (Insecta: Diptera). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 43:701-713.

Schnell e Schuehli, G., C. J. B. Carvalho and B. M. Wiegmann. 2007. Molecular Phylogenetics of the Muscidae: New Ideas in a Congruence Context. Invertebrate Systematics 21: 263-278.

Winterton, S. L., B. M. Wiegmann and E. I. Schlinger. 2007. Phylogeny and Bayesian divergence time estimations of small-headed flies (Diptera: Acroceridae) using multiple molecular markers. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 43: 808-832.

Petersen, F. T., R. Meier, S. N. Kutty and B. M. Wiegmann. 2007. The phylogeny and evolution of host choice in the Hippoboscoidea (Diptera) as reconstructed using four molecular markers. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, Vol. 45:111-222.


Fan, C., (J.) Q.-Y. Xiang, D. L. Remington, M. D. Purugganan and B. M. Wiegmann. 2006. Evolutionary patterns in the antR-Cor gene in the dwarf dogwood complex (Cornus, Cornaceae) Genetica. In press (available online).


Yeates, D. K., and B. M. Wiegmann. 2005. Phylogeny and evolution of Diptera: recent insights and new perspectives, in Yeates, D. K. and B. M. Wiegmann, eds. The Evolutionary Biology of Flies. Columbia University Press.

Laamanen, T. R., R. Meier, M. A. Miller, A. Hille and B. M. Wiegmann. 2005. Phylogenetic analysis of Themira (Sepsidae: Diptera): sensitivity analysis, alignment, and indel treatment in a multigene study. Cladistics, 21:258-271.


Fan, C., M. D. Purugganan, D. T. Thomas, B. M. Wiegmann and (J.) Q.-Y. Xiang. 2004. Heterogeneous evolution of the Myc-like Anthocyanin regulatory gene and its phylogenetic utility in Cornus L. (Cornaceae) Heterogeneous evolution of the Myc-like Anthocyanin regulatory gene and its phylogenetic utility in Cornus L. (Cornaceae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 33: 580-594.

Savage, J., T. A. Wheeler and B. M. Wiegmann. 2004. Phylogenetic analysis of the genus Thricops Rondani (Diptera: Muscidae) based on molecular and morphological characters. Systematic Entomology 29: 395-414.

Cryan, J. R., B. M. Wiegmann, L. L. Deitz, C. H. Dietrich, and M. F. Whiting. 2004. Treehopper trees: phylogeny of Membracidae (Hemiptera: Cicadomorpha: Membracoidea) based on molecules and morphology. Systematic Entomology 19: 1-14.

Moulton, J. K. and B. M. Wiegmann. 2004. Evolution and phylogenetic utility of cad (rudimentary) among Mesozoic-aged eremoneuran Diptera (Insecta). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 31: 363-378.


Wiegmann, B. M., D. K. Yeates, J. L. Thorne, and H. Kishino. 2003. Time flies: A new molecular time-scale for fly evolution without a clock. Systematic Biology 52: 745-756.

Yeates, D. K., R. Meier and B. M. Wiegmann. 2003. Phylogeny of true flies (Diptera): A 250 million year old success story in terrestrial diversification. Entomologische Abhandlungen 61: 170-172.

Yeates, D.K., M. E. Irwin and B. M. Wiegmann. 2003. Ocoidae, a new family of asiloid flies (Diptera: Brachycera: Asiloidea), based on Ocoa chilensis gen. and sp. nov. from Chile, South America. Systematic Entomology 28: 417-431.


Mukha, D. V., B. M. Wiegmann and C. Schal. 2002. Evolution and phylogenetic information content of the ribosomal DNA repeat unit in the Blattoidea (Insecta). Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 32: 951-960.

Meier, R. and B. M. Wiegmann. 2002. A phylogenetic analysis of Coelopidae (Diptera) based on morphological and DNA sequence data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 25: 393-407.

Collins, K. P. and B. M. Wiegmann. 2002. Phylogenetic relationships and placement of the Empidoidea (Diptera: Brachycera) based on 28S rDNA and EF-1alpha sequences. Insect Systematics and Evolution 33: 421-444.

Collins, K. P. and B. M. Wiegmann. 2002. Phylogenetic relationships of the lower Cyclorrhapha (Diptera: Brachycera) based on 28S rDNA sequences. Insect Systematics and Evolution: 33:445-456.

Wiegmann, B. M., J. C. Regier and C. Mitter. 2002. Combined molecular and morphological evidence on phylogeny of the earliest lepidopteran lineages. Zoologica Scripta 31: 67-81.


Irwin, M. E. and B. M. Wiegmann. 2001. A review of the southern African genus Tongamya (Mydidae: Megascelinae) with a molecular assessment of the phylogenetic placement of Tongamya and the Megascelinae. African Invertebrates 42: 225-253.

Winterton, S. L., L. Yang, B. M. Wiegmann and D. K. Yeates. 2001. Phylogenetic revision of the Agapophytini tribe n. (Diptera: Therevidae) based on molecular and morphological evidence. Systematic Entomology, 26: 173-211.


Yang, L., B. M. Wiegmann, D. K. Yeates and M. E. Irwin. 2000. Higher-level phylogeny of the Therevidae (Diptera: Insecta) based on 28S ribosomal and elongation factor-1a gene sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 15: 440-451.

Wiegmann, B. M., S. C. Tsaur, D. W. Webb, D. K. Yeates and B. Cassel. 2000. Monophyly and relationships of the Tabanomorpha (Diptera: Brachycera) based on 28S ribosomal gene sequences. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 93: 1031-1038.

Wiegmann, B. M., J. C. Regier, C. Mitter, T. P. Friedlander, D. L. Wagner and E. S. Nielsen. 2000. Nuclear genes resolve Mesozoic-aged divergences in the insect order Lepidoptera. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 15: 242-259.

Cryan, J. R., B. M. Wiegmann, L. L. Deitz and C. H. Dietrich. 2000. Phylogenetic relationships of the treehoppers (Insecta, Hempitera, Membracidae): Evidence from two nuclear genes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 17: 317-334.

Scheffer, S. J., and B. M. Wiegmann. 2000. Molecular phylogenetics of the holly leafminers ( Diptera: Agromyzidae: Phytomyza): species limits, speciation, and dietary specialization. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 17: 244-255.

Mukha, D.V., A. P. Sidorenko, I. V. Lazebnaya, B. M. Wiegmann and C. Schal. 2000. Analysis of intraspecies polymorphism in the ribosomal DNA cluster of the cockroach, Blattella germanica. Insect Molecular Biology 9: 215-220.

Clements, K. M., B. M. Wiegmann, C. E. Sorenson, C. F. Smith, P. A. Neese and R. M. Roe. 2000. Genetic variation in the Myzus persicae complex (Homoptera: Aphididae): evidence for a single species. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 93: 31-46.

Clements, K. M., C. E. Sorenson, B. M. Wiegmann and R. M. Roe. 2000. Insecticide resistance in the Myzus persicae complex (Homoptera: Aphididae) with emphasis on tobacco pest management. Reviews in Toxicology 3 (1999/2000) 1-23.

Clements, K. M., B. M. Wiegmann, C. F. Smith, C. E. Sorenson and R. M. Roe. 2000. Genetic, biochemical, and behavioral uniformity among populations of Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Homoptera: Aphididae). Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 95:269-281.


Yeates, D. K. and B. M. Wiegmann. 1999. Congruence and controversy: toward a higher-level phylogeny of Diptera. Annual Review of Entomology 44: 397-428. pdf

Castrillo, L. A., B. M. Wiegmann and W. M. Brooks. 1999. Genetic variation in Beauveria bassiana populations associated with the darkling beetle, Alphitobius diaperinus, in poultry houses. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 73: 269-275.


Swofford, D.L., J. L. Thorne, J. Felsenstein and B. M. Wiegmann. 1996. The topology-dependent permutation test for monophyly does not test for monophyly. Systematic Biology 45:573-577.


Regier, J. C., T. P. Friedlander, R. LeClerc, C. Mitter and B. M. Wiegmann. 1995. Lepidopteran phylogeny and applications to comparative studies of development. In: M. R. Goldsmith and A. Walken, eds., The Molecular Genetics and Molecular Biology of the Lepidoptera, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.


Regier, J. C., B. M. Wiegmann, R. LeClerc and T. P. Friedlander. 1994. Loss of phylogenetic information in chorion gene families of Bombyx mori due to gene conversion. Molecular Biology and Evolution 11: 72-87.


Wiegmann, B. M., C. Mitter and B. Farrell. 1993. Diversification of parasitic insects: extraordinary radiation or specialized dead end?. The American Naturalist. 142: 737-754.pdf

Wiegmann, B. M., C. Mitter and F. C. Thompson. 1993. Evolutionary origin of the Cyclorrhapha: tests of alternative morphological hypotheses. Cladistics 9:41-81.


Mitter, C., B. Farrell and B. M. Wiegmann. 1988. The phylogenetic study of adaptive zones: has phytophagy promoted insect diversification?. The American Naturalist 132:107-128.