Issues in Outdoor Receation
Planning and Management
Issues in Recreation on
Issues in Visitor Education
Issues in Nature Tourism and
Spatial Perspectives of
Outdoor Recreation: Recreation Geography
Ecological Perspectives of
Outdoor Recreation: Recreation Ecology
Perspectives of Outdoor Recreation
I. RESEARCH TOPICS
Issues in Outdoor Recreation Planning and Management
- Anderson, D. H., D. W. Lime and T.
L. Wang. 1998. Maintaining
the Quality of Park Resources and Visitor Experiences: A Handbook for
Managers. St. Paul, MN, University
of Minnesota, Department of
Forest Resources, Cooperative
Park Studies Unit.
- Coble, T. L., D.H. Anderson,
D.W. Lime, T.E. Fish, J.L. Thompson, and J. Chen. 2008. Managing Visitor Use in Coastal and
Marine Protected Areas: Maintaining the Quality of Resource Conditions and
Visitor Experiences. Washington, DC: NOAA Coastal Services Center.
- Cordell, K. 1999. Outdoor
Recreation In American Life. Champaign, IL:
- Bell, S. 1997. Design for Outdoor
- Hultsman, J., R. L.
Cottrell, and W. Z. Hultsman. 1998. Planning Parks for
People (2nd Ed.). State
- Sharpe, G. W., C. H.
Odegaard, and W. F. Sharpe. 1994. A Comprehensive Introduction to Park
Management. 2nd Ed. Champaign,
IL: Sagamore Publishing.
Issues in Recreation on Public Lands
Agencies, Policies and Issues
Issues in Visitor Education and Communication
- Knudson, D. M., T. T.
Cable, and L. Beck. 1995. Interpretation of
Cultural and Natural Resources. State College, PA:
- Hampton, B. and D.
Cole. 2003. Soft
Paths: How to Enjoy the Wilderness Without Harming It (3rd Ed.) .
Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books.
- Manfredo, M. J., ed.
1992. Influencing Human Behavior: Theory and Applications in
Recreation, Tourism, and Natural Resources Management . Champaign, IL:
Issues in Nature Tourism and Ecotourism
- Eagles, P. and S.
McCool. 2003. Tourism in National Parks and Protected Areas: Planning
and Management. Oxon,
- Wood, M. E. 2002. Ecotourism:
Principles, Practices & Policies for Sustainability. Burlington, VT:
The International Ecotourism Society.
- Weaver, D. 2000. The
Encyclopedia of Ecotourism. Oxon,
UK: CABI Publishing.
- Honey, M. 1998. Ecotourism
and Sustainable Development. Washington,
Spatial Perspectives of Outdoor Recreation: Recreation
Recreation geography as a subdiscipline of geography may be
defined as the systematic study of recreation (including tourism and sport)
patterns and processes on the landscape (Smith 1982). As recreation and tourism
phenomena typically involve recreationists (tourists), recreation resources and
recreational activities, recreation geographers seek to identify, explain, and
predict the spatial patterns of these three components as well as their
association and interaction in space. While recreation geography is not unique
in its subject matter, it offers valuable spatial understanding and useful
spatial insights that are often lacking in other studies utilizing an
ecological, economic or socio-psychological perspective.
- Hall, C. M. and S.
Page. 2002. The Geography of Tourism and Recreation: Environment,
Place and Space (2nd Ed.). New
- Hall, C. M. and A. A.
Lew. eds. 1998. Sustainable Tourism Development: A Geographical
- Shaw, G. and A. M.
Williams. 1994. Critical Issues in Tourism: A Geographical Perspective.
Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
Ecological Perspectives of Recreation and Tourism:
Recreation ecology may be defined as the systematic study of
ecological relationships and interactions between humans and the environment in
recreation/tourism contexts. It is particularly concerned with the assessment
and monitoring of recreation-related resource impacts, and the role of
management and maintenance in sustaining recreational use. The majority of
research in this field has been conducted in natural and semi-natural areas.
Some major topics include: (1) recreation impact assessment and monitoring
techniques, (2) recreation impacts on undeveloped campsites and trails, (3)
recreationist-wildlife conflicts, and (4) education and information for
minimizing recreation impacts.
- Buckley, R. (ed.)
2004. Environmental Impacts of Ecotourism. Wallingford, UK:
- Newsome, D., S. A.
Moore, and R. K. Dowling 2002. Natural Area Tourism: Ecology, Impacts,
and Management . Clevedon,
Channel View Books.
- Hammitt, W. E. and D.
N. Cole. 1998. Wildland Recreation: Ecology and Management (Second
Edition). New York:
John Wiley & Sons.
- Liddle, M. J. 1997. Recreation
Ecology: The Ecological Impact of Outdoor Recreation and Ecotourism. London: Chapman and
- See also Visitor Education and Communication
- Online Resources
Socio-Psychological Perspectives of Outdoor Recreation
Social and environmental psychologists have been concerned
with leisure and recreation phenomena in the outdoors. This line of research
may be classified into four major themes: (1) recreational participation and
its constraints, (2) recreation choice and behavior, (3) social interaction and
its processes among recreationists and social groups, and (4) the nature and
quality of recreation experience and its beneficial consequences. Recreation
social scientists seek to understand these and other themes by adapting
theories, constructs and methods developed in social psychology, environmental
psychology and sociology. Some popular constructs in outdoor recreation research
include motivation, preferences, crowding, conflict and satisfaction.
- Driver, B. L. (ed.).
2008. Managing to Optimize the
Beneficial Outcomes of Recreation. State College, PA:
- Jackson E. L. and T.
L. Burton, eds. 1999. Leisure Studies: Prospects for the Twenty-First
Century. State College,
PA: Venture Publishing.
- Manning R. E. 1999. Studies
in Outdoor Recreation: A Review and Synthesis of the Social Science
Literature in Outdoor Recreation (2nd Ed.). Corvallis,
OR: Oregon State
This page is compiled and maintained by Yu-Fai Leung,
Parks, Recreation and Tourism Management, North Carolina State
Outdoor Recreation Research Front
NRRIPS Front Page
Comments and Suggestions
Last Updated: August 15, 2009
Copyright © 1995-2009 Yu-Fai Leung